Archive for the ‘AFRICAN CHILDREN’S LITERATURE’ Category

AFRICAN WRITERS!! BAYO ADEBOWALE IS BEING HONOURED AGAIN AS A CHIEF IN HIS OWN LAND!!!!

February 25, 2017

DR. BAYO ADEBOWALE
HONOUR FOR A PROPHET
IN HIS HOMELAND!
Bayo Adebowale,the accomplished African Novelist and Poet will on Saturday,4th March 2017 be honoured with the prestigeous Chieftaincy title of ONIGEGE ARA OF IGBO-ELERIN by the Igbo-Elerin Council of Baales. This is a well-deserved honour coming from the Literary Icon’s kith and kin….
What a feat!
Congratulations, author of The Virgin, Out Of His Mind,Lonely Days, A New Life, Talent, African Melody, Oriki,Village Harvest, and A Night of Incantations!

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THE VIRGIN AND THE NARROW PATH MOVIE NIGERIAN FORUM, FORUMS, SOCIAL NETWORK, NIGERIA JOB FORUM, BLOG, WEBSITE, SITE, NOLLYWOOD, ONLINE MESSAGE BOARD

January 27, 2010

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via THE VIRGIN AND THE NARROW PATH MOVIE NIGERIAN FORUM, FORUMS, SOCIAL NETWORK, NIGERIA JOB FORUM, BLOG, WEBSITE, SITE, NOLLYWOOD, ONLINE MESSAGE BOARD.

LANGUAGES OF NIGERIA ACCORDING TO WIKIPEDIA.ORG

May 5, 2008

FROM wikipedia.org

Languages of Nigeria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Linguistic map of Nigeria, Cameroon, and Benin.Nigeria

This article is part of the series:
Culture of Nigeria

Languages
Literature
List of Nigerian writers
List of Nigerian poets
Music of Nigeria

Other countries – Culture Portal

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The number of languages currently estimated and catalogued in Nigeria is 521. This number includes 510 living languages, two second languages without native speakers and 9 extinct languages. In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The official language of Nigeria, English, the former colonial language, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country. The major languages spoken in Nigeria are Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, Edo, Efik, Ibibio and Annang language, Adamawa Fulfulde, Idoma, and Central Kanuri. Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, English, being the official language, is widely used for education, business transactions and for official purposes. English, however, remains an exclusive preserve of a small minority of the country’s urban elite, and is not spoken in rural areas. With approximately 75% of Nigeria’s populace in the rural areas, the major languages of communication in the country remain tribal languages, with the most widely spoken being Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. Foreign minorities speak their own languages aside from English and/or major native languages as their second languages.

Nigeria’s linguistic diversity is a microcosm of Africa as a whole, encompassing three major African languages families: the Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, and the Niger-Congo A branch of the Niger-Congo family. Nigeria also has one unclassifiable language, Cen Tuum, spoken by a few old people among the Cham in Gombe State. This may represent an intriguing relic of an even greater diversity prior to the spread of the current language families.

Contents [hide]
1 Niger-Congo languages
2 Afro-Asiatic languages
3 See also
4 Wikimedia
5 References
6 External links

[edit] Niger-Congo languages
Niger-Congo predominates in central and southern Nigeria; the main branches represented in Nigeria are Mande, Atlantic, Gur, Kwa, Benue-Congo and Adamawa-Ubangian. Mande is represented by the Busa cluster and Kyenga in the northwest. Fulfulde is the single Atlantic language, of Senegambian origin but now spoken by cattle pastoralists across the Sahel and largely in the North of Nigeria by the Fulani (sometimes Fulbe) diaspora. The Ijoid languages are spoken across the Niger Delta and include Ịjọ (=Ijaw), Kalabari and the intriguing remnant language, Defaka, while the Ibibio language is spoken across the coastal southeastern part of Nigeria and includes Efik, Annnang, oron, Eket, and Ikot Abasi. The single Gur language spoken is Baatọnun, in the Northwest. The Adamawa-Ubangian languages are spoken between central Nigeria and the Central African Republic. Their westernmost representatives in Nigeria are the Tula-Waja languages. The Kwa languages are represented by the Gun group in the extreme southwest, which is affiliated to the Gbe languages in Benin and Togo.

The classification of the remaining languages is controversial; Joseph Greenberg classified those without noun-classes, such as Yoruba, Igbo, and Ibibio, as ‘Eastern Kwa’ and those with classes as ‘Benue-Congo’. This was reversed in an influential 1989 publication and reflected on the 1992 map of languages, where all these were considered Benue-Congo. Recent opinion, however, has been to revert to Greenberg’s distinction. The literature must thus be read with care and due regard for the date. It should be noted that there are several small language groupings in the Niger Confluence area, notably Ukaan, Akpes, Ayere-Ahan and Ọkọ, whose inclusion in these groupings has never been satisfactorily argued.

Former Eastern Kwa, i.e. West Benue-Congo would then include Yoruboid, i.e. Yoruba, Itsekiri and Igala, Akokoid (eight small languages in Ondo, Edo and Kogi state), Edoid including Edo in Edo State, Igboid, Ibibio, Efik, Annnang, Idomoid (Idoma) and Nupoid (Nupe) and perhaps include the other languages mentioned above. East Benue-Congo includes Kainji, Plateau (46 languages, notably Eggon), Jukunoid, Dakoid and [[Cross River languages|Cross River]. Apart from these, there are numerous Bantoid languages, which are the languages immediately ancestral to Bantu. These include Mambiloid, Ekoid, Bendi, Beboid, Grassfields and Tivoid languages. The geographic distribution of Nigeria’s Niger-Congo languages is not limited to south-central Nigeria, as migration allows their spread to the linguistically Afro-Asiatic northern regions of Nigeria, as well as throughout West Africa and abroad. Yoruba is spoken as a ritual language in cults such as the Santeria in the Caribbean and South-Central America, and the Berbice Dutch language in Surinam is based on an Ijoid language.

Even the above listed linguistic diversity of the Niger-Congo in Nigeria is deceptively limiting, as these languages may further consist of regional dialects that may not be mutually intelligible. As such some languages, particularly those with a large number of speakers, have been standardized and received a romanized orthography. Nearly all languages appear in a Roman script when written, often with modifications allowing for a language’s particularities. The Yoruba and Igbo languages are notable examples of this process; Standard Yoruba came into being due to the work Samuel Crowther, the first African bishop of the Anglican Church and owes most of its lexicon to the dialects spoken in Ọyọ and Ibadan. Since Standard Yoruba’s constitution was determined by a single author rather than by a consensual linguistic policy by all speakers, the Standard has been attacked regarding for failing to include other dialects and spurred debate as to what demarcates “genuine Yoruba”. The more historically recent standardization and romanization of Igbo has provoked even more controversy due to its dialectical diversity, but the Central Igbo dialect has gained the widest acceptace as the standard-bearer; however many such as Chinua Achebe have dismissed standardization as colonial and conservative attempts to simplify a complex mosaic of languages. Such controversies typify inter- and intra-ethnic conflict endemic to post-colonial Nigeria.

Linguistically speaking, all demonstrate the varying phonological features of the Niger-Congo family to which they belong, these include the use of tone, nasality, and particular consonant and vowel systems; more information is available here.

[edit] Afro-Asiatic languages
The Afro-Asiatic languages of Nigeria divide into Chadic, Semitic and Berber. Of these, Chadic languages predominate, with 70+ languages. Semitic is represented by various dialects of Arabic spoken in the Northeast and Berber by the Tuareg-speaking communities in the extreme Northwest.

The Hausa language is the most well-known Chadic language in Nigeria; though there is a paucity of statistics on native speakers in Nigeria, the language is spoken by 24 million people in West Africa and is the second language of 15 million more. Hausa has therefore emerged as lingua franca throughout much of West Africa and the Sahel in particular. The language is spoken primarily amongst Muslims, and the language is often associated with Islamic culture in Nigeria and West Africa on the whole. Hausa is classified as a West Chadic language of the Chadic grouping, a major subfamily of Afro-Asiatic. Culturally, the Hausa people have become closely integrated with the Fulani following the jihadist establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate by the Fulani Uthman dan Fodio in the 19th century. Hausa is the official language of a number states in Northern Nigeria and the most important dialect is generally regarded as that spoken in Kano,an Eastern Hausa dialect, which is the standard variety used for official purposes. Eastern dialects also include some dialects spoken in Zaria, and Bauchi; Western Hausa dialects include Sakkwatanchi spoken in Sokoto, Katsinanchi in Katsina Arewanchi in both Gobir and Adar,Kebbi, and Zamfara. Katsina is transitional between Eastern and Western dialects. Northern Hausa dialects include Arewa and Arawa, while Zaria is a prominent Southern tongue version; Barikanchi is a pidgin formerly used in the military.

Hausa is a highly atypical Chadic language, with a reduced tonal system and a phonology influenced by Arabic. Other well-known Chadic languages include Ngas, Mwaghavul, Bole, Ngizim, Bade and Bacama. In the East of Nigeria and on into Cameroun are the Central Chadic languages, such as Bura, the Higi cluster and Marghi. These are highly diverse and remain very poorly described. Many Chadic languages are severely threatened; recent searches by Bernard Caron for Southern Bauchi languages show that even some of those recorded in the 1970s have disappeared. However, unknown Chadic languages are still being reported, witness the recent description of Dyarim.

Hausa, as well as other Afro-Asiatic languages like Bade (another West Chadic language spoken in Yobe State), have historically been written in a modified Arabic script known as ajami, however, the modern official orthography is now a romanization known as boko first introduced by the British regime in the 1930s.

[edit] See also
List of languages of Nigeria

[edit] Wikimedia
Systematic graphic of the Niger-Congo languages with numbers of speakers

[edit] References
Blench, Roger (2002) Research on Minority Languages in Nigeria in 2001. Ogmios.
Blench, Roger (1998) ‘The Status of the Languages of Central Nigeria’, in Brenzinger, M. (ed.) Endangered languages in Africa. Köln: Köppe Verlag, 187-206. online version
Crozier, David & Blench, Roger (1992) An Index of Nigerian Languages (2nd edition). Dallas: SIL.

[edit] External links
Ethnologue Listing of Nigerian Languages
Blench, Roger (n.d.) Atlas of Nigerian Languages, ed. III (revised and amended edition of Crozier & Blench 1992)
[hide]v • d • eLanguages of Africa

CULTURE IN NIGERIA ACCORDING TO WIKIPEDIA.ORG

May 5, 2008

from wikipedia.org

Culture of Nigeria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Culture of Nigeria is shaped by Nigeria’s multiple ethnic groups. The country has over 250 different languages and cultures. The four largest are the Hausa-Fulani who are predominant in the north, the Igbo who are predominant in the southeast, the Yoruba who are predominant in the southwest and the Benin Tribes who are predominant in the west, 80 percent of the Benins tend to be Christian while the remaining 20 percent worship idols which is called Ogu. These are followed by the Ibibio/Annang/Efik Efik, Ibibio, Annang people of the coastal southeastern Nigeria and the Ijaw of the Nigerian Delta.

The rest of Nigeria’s ethnic groups (sometimes called “mini-minorities”) are found all over the country but especially in the densely populated south. The Hausa tend to be Muslim and the Igbo, Christian. Ibibio/Annang/Efik Efik, Ibibio, Annang people are mainly Christian as Christianity and Western system entered Nigeria through their capital city Calabar. The Practitioners of both Christianity and Islam are found among the Yoruba. Indigenous religious practices remain important, especially in the south, and are often blended with Christian beliefs.

Nigeria is famous for its English literature and its popular music. Since the 1990s the Nigerian movie industry, sometimes called “Nollywood” has emerged as a fast-growing cultural force all over the continent.

Traditional music often include musicians on Gongon drums.

Other traditional cultural expressions are found in the various masquerades of Nigeria, such as the Eyo masquerades, the Ekpe and Ekpo Masquerades of Ibibio/Annang/Efik Efik, Ibibio, Annang people Ekpe Society in Calabar, the inventor of Nsibidi script of Nigeria and the Northern Edo Masquerades. Yoruba wooden masks are used in the Gelede masquerades.

[edit] Nigerian artists and writers
Internationally-known artists and writers from Nigeria include writer Chinua Achebe, Odia Ofeimum, James Ene Henshaw, Ntienyong Udo Akpan, E. E. Nkanga, Sola Osofisan, Chidi Anthony Opara, Ogaga Ifowodo, Maik Nwosu, Obi Nwakanma. juju musician King Sunny Ade, Nigerian-born Grammy winning jazz singer Sade (Helen Folasade Adu), free-style jazz musician Fela Kuti, who uses traditional African call-and-response, writer Ben Okri, playwright Ken Saro-Wiwa, Nobel prize winning writer Wole Soyinka, and British/Nigerian artist Yinka Shonibare.

[edit] External links
Things Come Together: A Journey through Literary Lagos
Overview of Nigeria’s Culture for business tourists
This page was last modified on 28 April 2008, at 15:36. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.)
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LIST OF NIGERIAN WRITERS ACCORDING TO WIKIPEDIA.ORG

May 5, 2008

from wikipedia.org

List of Nigerian writers
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nigeria

A
Adam Abdulahi
Yusufu Adamu
Chris Abani
Andy Abulu
Chinua Achebe (1930– )
Wale AdebanwiBAYO ADEBOWALE (1944-)
Remi Adedeji (1937– )
Abiola Adegboyega
Dapo Adeniyi
Mobolaji Adenubi
Kole Ade-Odutola
Kayode Aderinokun
Pius Adesanmi
Akin Adesokan
Sean Adetula
Toyin Abiodun
Toyin Adewale-Gabriel
Sola Adeyemi (1965– )
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (1977– )
Emeka Agbayi
Rita Aghadiuno[1]
Tolu Ajayi (1946– )
Segun Akinlolu
Segun Akinyode
Akilu Aliyu
Odinaka Anudu
Isiaka Aliagan
Olufunmi Aluko
T.M. Aluko (1918– )
Elechi Amadi (1934– )
Ifi Amadiume
Peter Anny-Nzekwue
Ike Anya
G. O. Apata
Sefi Atta (1964– )
Babatunde Awoyele
Anne Axis
Unoma Nguemo Azuah
Nnorom Azuonye
Tunde Akinloye

[edit] B-E
Babafemi Badejo
Francoise Balogun
Biyi Bandele
A. Igoni Barrett (1979– )
Charles Bodunde
Qasim Bolaji-Ashogbon
Tubal Rabbi Cain (1964–)
Chidi Anthony Opara
Chin Ce (1966– )
John Pepper Clark (1935– )
Samuel Ajayi Crowther (1809–1891)
Olumbe Bassir
Folasayo Dele-Ogunrinde
Umaru Dembo
David Diai
Jude Dibia (1975– )
Ebereonwu
Philip Efiong[[2]]
Philip Effiong jr.[3]
Etebom Ekpo
Michael Echeruo (1937– )
Amatoritsero (Godwin) Ede
Eyitemi Egwuenu
Victor Ehikhamenor
Cyprian Ekwensi (1921– )
Buchi Emecheta (1944– )
E. Nolue Emenanjo
Perpetual Emenekwum-Eziefule
Olaudah Equiano (c. 1745–97)
Rosemary Esehagu (1981– )
Femi Euba
Chielozona Eze
Vera Ezimora
Abitogun Oladipo Ojo
Itunu-Abitogun Oyinlade Oladipo
Akinbami Oluseyi Macaulay
Aderinola Richardson (nee Aderemi)

[edit] F-K
Daniel Olorunfemi Fagunwa
Adebayo Faleti
Dan Fulani
Harry Oludare Garuba (1958– )
Jumoke Giwa
Healson Adedayo Farore, Sr.
Helon Habila
Ogaga Ifowodo
Anita Omoiataman Ihaza
Rita Ihekwaba[4]
Senator Ihenyen
Ikhide R. Ikheloa (Nnamdi)
Esiaba Irobi
Akinwunmi Isola
Uzodinma Iweala
Obi “Obiwu” Iwuayanwu
Festus Iyayi
Abubakar Imam
Femi Jeboda
Prince Joshua Olawuyi
Biodun Jeyifo (1946– )
Mike Jimoh
Samuel Johnson
Kokalu O. Kalu
Uduma Kalu
Hamzat Kassim
Sulaiman Ibrahim Katsina
Olubukola Kwegan

[edit] L-N
Abimbola Lagunju
Obakanse S. Lakanse
Akeem Lasisi
Amina Mama
Oliver Mbamara
Ayodele Morocco-Clarke (1973–)
John Munonye
Uche Nduka
Austyn Njoku
Obi Nwakanma
Martina Awele Nwakoby (1937– )
Nkem Nwankwo (1936–2001)
Flora Nwapa (1931–1993)
Njideka Nwapa-Ibuaka
Chuma Nwokolo
Angela Nwosu
Maik Nwosu
Nkechi Nwosu-Igbo
Azuka Nzegwu
Onuora Nzekwu

[edit] O
Olu Obafemi
Iheoma Obibi
Obinna Charles Okwelume
Hyacinth Obunseh
Sunny E. Ododo
Pastor Taiwo Odubiyi
Odia Ofeimun
Chike Ofili
Sarah O’Gorman
Olu Oguibe
Ike Oguine
Molara Ogundipe
Samuel Olagunju Ogundipe
Tolulope Ogunlesi
Denrele Ogunwa
Omolola Ijeoma Ogunyemi
Yemi D. Ogunyemi
Ijeoma Ogwuegbu
Francis Ohanyido (1970– )
Tanure Ojaide
Bamiji Ojo
Akinloye Ojo
Olatubosun Oladapo
Gabriel Okara (1921– )
Oladejo Okedeji
Wale Okediran
Chika Okeke
Remi Okere
Niran Okewole
Christopher Okigbo (1932–1967)
Onookome Okome
Ike Okonta
Nnedi Okorafor-Mbachu
Dike Okoro
Rudolf Ogoo Okonkwo
Wole Oguntokun
Osita Okoroafor
Ben Okri (1959– )
Afolabi Olabimtan
Simbo Olorunfemi
Esho Oluborode
Alade E. Oluwadamilola
Kole Omotosho (1943– )
Nduka Onwuegbute (1969– )
Osonye Tess Onwueme (1955– )
Dillibe Onyeama
Frank Onyebu
Nwando Onyeabo
Alexander Orok
Nnaemeka Oruh
Dennis Osadebay
Femi Osofisan
Chinye Phiona Osai
Sanya Osha
Sola Osofisan
E.C. Osondu
Niyi Osundare (1947– )
Tony Nduka Otiono
Helen Ovbiagele (1944– )
Jamin Owhovoriole
Bunmi Oyinsan
Dupe Olorunjo
Naan Pocen
Seni Ogunkola

[edit] R-T
Remi Raji
Aderemi Raji-Oyelade
Ken Saro-Wiwa (1941–95)
Lola Shoneyin
Mudi Sipikin
Ladipo Soetan
Zulu Sofola (1935–95)
Bode Sowande (1948–)
J. Sobowole Sowande
Ugochukwu Ejinkeonye
Wole Soyinka (1934– ), awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature
Loud Speaker
Emmanuel Sule
Mohammed Sule
Muritala Sule
Kola Tubosun
Adebisi Thompson
Amos Tutuola (1920-97)
Morenike Taire

[edit] U-Z
Uche Nworah
Ebele Uche-Nwakile
Françoise Ugochukwu, born in France
Clarius Ugwuoha
Gracy Ukala (formerly Osifo)
Adaora Lily Ulasi (1932– )
Sumaila Isah Umaisha
Karo Umukoro
Chika Unigwe
Emman Usman Shehu
Ronnie Uzoigwe
Jumoke Verissimo
Ugonna Wachuku (1971– ), lives in Geneva, Switzerland
Segun Williams
Ken Wiwa (1968– ), now resides in Canada
Kenneth Nwobosi(www.kenobosi.tk)
Molara Wood
Oladipo Yemitan
Sa’adu Zungur

This page was last modified on 25 April 2008, at 14:44. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.)
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AFRICAN LITERATURE FROM WIKIPEIDA.ORG

May 5, 2008

from en.wikipedia.org

African literature
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
African literature refers to the literature of and for the African peoples. As George Joseph notes on the first page of his chapter on African literature in Understanding Contemporary Africa, while the European perception of literature generally refers to written letters, the African concept includes oral literature. [1]

As George Joseph continues, while European views of literature often stressed a separation of art and content, African awareness is inclusive:

“Literature” can also imply an artistic use of words for the sake of art alone. Without denying the important role of aesthetics in Africa, we should keep in mind that, traditionally, Africans do not radically separate art from teaching. Rather than write or sing for beauty in itself, African writers, taking their cue from oral literature, use beauty to help communicate important truths and information to society. Indeed, an object is considered beautiful because of the truths it reveals and the communities it helps to build. [2]
Contents [hide]
1 Early written literatures
2 Oral literature
3 Precolonial literature
4 Colonial African literature
5 Postcolonial African literature
6 Noma Award
7 Major African novels
8 Major African poets
9 Secondary literature
10 See also
11 References
12 External links

[edit] Early written literatures
North Africa had an early literate indigenous civilization (Ancient Egypt) some of whose hieroglyphic writings survive. North Africans also contributed to writing in Phoenician, Greek and Latin. Phoenician material, from Carthage and other colonies on the continent, has been very largely lost. Encouraged by the royal patronage of the Ptolemaic rulers, scholars in Alexandria assembled the famous Library of Alexandria and Alexandrian writers contributed not insignificantly to the material housed in this institution. North Africans writing in Latin include Apuleius and Saint Augustine.

In Islamic times, North Africans, such as ibn Khaldun attained great distinction within Arabic literature.

[edit] Oral literature
Oral literature (or orature) may be in prose or verse. The prose is often mythological or historical and can include tales of the trickster character. Storytellers in Africa sometimes use call-and-response techniques to tell their stories. Poetry, often sung, includes: narrative epic, occupational verse, ritual verse, praise poems to rulers and other prominent people. Praise singers, bards sometimes known as “griots”, tell their stories with music. [3] Also recited, often sung, are: love songs, work songs, children’s songs, along with epigrams, proverbs and riddles.[4]

[edit] Precolonial literature
Examples of pre-colonial African literature include the Epic of Sundiata composed in medieval Mali, The older Epic of Dinga from the old Ghana Empire, and the Kebra Negast or book of kings from Ethiopia. One popular form of traditional African folktale is the “trickster” story, where a small animal uses its wits to survive encounters with larger creatures. Examples of animal tricksters include Anansi, a spider in the folklore of the Ashanti people of Ghana; Ijàpá, a tortoise in Yoruba folklore of Nigeria; and Sungura, a hare found in central and East African folklore. [5]

[edit] Colonial African literature
The African works best known in the West from the period of colonization and the slave trade are primarily slave narratives, such as Olaudah Equiano’s The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789).

In the colonial period, Africans exposed to Western languages began to write in those tongues. In 1911, Joseph Ephraim Casely-Hayford (also known as Ekra-Agiman) of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) published what is probably the first African novel written in English, Ethiopia Unbound: Studies in Race Emancipation [6] Although the work moves between fiction and political advocacy, its publication and positive reviews in the Western press mark a watershed moment in African literature.

During this period, African plays began to emerge. Herbert Isaac Ernest Dhlomo of South Africa published the first English-language African play , The Girl Who Killed to Save: Nongqawuse the Liberator in 1935. In 1962, Ngugi wa Thiong’o of Kenya wrote the first East African drama, The Black Hermit, a cautionary tale about “tribalism” (racism between African tribes).

African literature in the late colonial period (between the end of World War I and independence) increasingly showed themes of liberation, independence, and (among Africans in French-controlled territories) négritude. One of the leaders of the négritude movement, the poet and eventual President of Senegal, Léopold Sédar Senghor, published the first anthology of French-language poetry written by Africans in 1948, Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache de langue française (Anthology of the New Black and Malagasy Poetry in the French Language), featuring a preface by the French existentialist writer Jean-Paul Sartre. [7]

[edit] Postcolonial African literature
With liberation and increased literacy since most African nations gained their independence in the 1950s and 1960s, African literature has grown dramatically in quantity and in recognition, with numerous African works appearing in Western academic curricula and on “best of” lists compiled at the end of the 20th century. African writers in this period wrote both in Western languages (notably English, French, and Portuguese) and in traditional African languages.

Ali A. Mazrui and others mention seven conflicts as themes: the clash between Africa’s past and present, between tradition and modernity, between indigenous and foreign, between individualism and community, between socialism and capitalism, between development and self-reliance and between Africanity and humanity. [8] Other themes in this period include social problems such as corruption, the economic disparities in newly independent countries, and the rights and roles of women. Female writers are today far better represented in published African literature than they were prior to independence.

In 1986, Wole Soyinka became the first post-independence African writer to win the Nobel Prize in literature. Algerian-born Albert Camus had been awarded the 1957 prize.

[edit] Noma Award
The Noma Award, begun in 1980, is presented for the outstanding work of the year in African literature.

[edit] Major African novels
Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart (Nigeria)
Alan Paton, Cry, The Beloved Country (South Africa)
Gracy Ukala, Dizzy Angel (Nigeria)
Daniel Olorunfemi Fagunwa, Ogboju odẹ ninu igbo irunmalẹ (The Forest of a Thousand Demons) (Nigeria)
Mariama Bâ, Une si longue lettre (So Long a Letter) (Senegal)
Ousmane Sembène, Xala (Senegal)
Ngugi wa Thiong’o, A Grain of Wheat (Kenya)
Benjamin Sehene, Le Feu sous la Soutane (Fire under the Cassock) (Rwanda)
Thomas Mofolo, Chaka (South Africa/Lesotho)
Tsitsi Dangarembga, Nervous Conditions (Zimbabwe)
Dambudzo Marechera, The House of Hunger (Zimbabwe/Rhodesia)
Yvonne Vera, Butterfly Burning (Zimbabwe)
Mia Couto, Terra Sonâmbula (A Sleepwalking Land) (Mozambique)
Ayi Kwei Armah, The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (Ghana)
Ben Okri, The Famished Road (Nigeria)
J.M. Coetzee, Disgrace (South Africa)
BAYO ADEBOWALE’S NOVELS:”THE VIRGIN”,”OUT OF HIS MIND” AND “LONELY DAYS”(NIGERIA)
[edit] Major African poets
Chinua Achebe (Nigeria)
Gracy Ukala (Nigeria)
Wole Soyinka (Nigeria)
Christopher Okigbo (Nigeria)
Lenrie Peters (Gambia)
Kofi Anyidoho (Ghana)
Dennis Brutus (South Africa)
Kofi Awoonor (Ghana)
Chidi Anthony Opara(Nigeria)
BAYO ADEBOWALE(NIGERIA)
[edit] Secondary literature
Encyclopedia of African Literature, ed Simon Gikandi, London: Routledge, 2003.
The Cambridge History of African and Caribbean Literature, ed Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi, 2 vls, Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Table of contents
Daughters of Africa: An International Anthology of Words and Writing by Women of African Descent”, ed Margaret Busby (Random House, 1992).
General History of Africa vol. VIII, ed. Ali A. Mazrui, UNESCO, 1993, ch. 19 “The development of modern literature since 1935,” Ali A. Mazrui et al.
Understanding Contemporary Africa, ed. April A. Gordon and Donald L. Gordon, Lynne Rienner, London, 1996, ch. 12 “African Literature”, George Joseph
“Great Poets From Around The World (Nigeria)”,World Poets Society Official Website,www.world-poets.blogspot.com

[edit] See also
List of African writers
African cinema
Nigerian literature

[edit] References
^ George, Joseph, “African Literature” ch. 12 of Understanding Contemporary Africa p. 303
^ ibid p. 304
^ http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0802673.html
^ George Joseph, op. cit. pp. 306-310
^ African Literature – MSN Encarta
^ [1].
^ Leopold Senghor – MSN Encarta
^ Ali A. Mazrui et al. “The development of modern literature since 1935” as ch. 19 of UNESCO’s General History of Africa vol. VIII p. 564f Collaborating with Ali A. Mazrui on this chapter were Mario Pinto de Andrade, M’hamed Alaoui Abdalaoui, Daniel P. Kunene and Jan Vansina.

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