Archive for the ‘AFRICAN POETS’ Category

AFRICAN WRITERS!! BAYO ADEBOWALE IS BEING HONOURED AGAIN AS A CHIEF IN HIS OWN LAND!!!!

February 25, 2017

DR. BAYO ADEBOWALE
HONOUR FOR A PROPHET
IN HIS HOMELAND!
Bayo Adebowale,the accomplished African Novelist and Poet will on Saturday,4th March 2017 be honoured with the prestigeous Chieftaincy title of ONIGEGE ARA OF IGBO-ELERIN by the Igbo-Elerin Council of Baales. This is a well-deserved honour coming from the Literary Icon’s kith and kin….
What a feat!
Congratulations, author of The Virgin, Out Of His Mind,Lonely Days, A New Life, Talent, African Melody, Oriki,Village Harvest, and A Night of Incantations!

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NIGERIAN LITERATURE IS RAISING AGAIN ACCORDING TO BROTHER LINDSEY BARRETT-FROM THE GUARDIAN NEWSPAPER,OCT.17,2009

October 17, 2009

From ngrguardiannews.com

Saturday, October 17, 2009

Nigeria’s Literature At Odds With Her Poor Politics, Says Lindsay Barrett

LINDSAY Barrett is one Diaspora Pan-Africanist, who boldly stuck out his head in the heady days of the 1960s to relocate from Jamaica to parts of West Africa before settling down finally in Nigeria. He was consumed in the vibrant Literature and cultural life of the land he chose to make his home and significantly made his contributions as journalist and writer. Although in his late 60s, Barrett is still active in his journalistic and creative engagements that have earned him fame. More than these, his relevance as a writer also came to the fore recently when he was shortlisted, along other eight nominees, for the NLNG Prize for Literature with his new work, A Memory of Rivers. However, at the Grand Awards Night ceremony last weekend in Abuja, the judges said no winner emerged, and thus, the prize money of $50, 000 was decreed to be given to the Nigerian Academy of Letters to develop Literature. In this encounter with ANOTE AJELUOROU, Barrett reminisces on the journey back to his African roots and the milestones so far. Excerpts:

IT would look like you have been there forever, even while still having your works relevant to issues of today. When you look back at this long stretch of involvement in Nigerian Literature, what really occurs to you?

I’m always saddened by the fact that Nigeria has produced the greatest body of Literature of relevance and strength of any African nation yet little matching national development. Its work is as important if not more so to the rest of Africa than any national Literature, like South African Literature of resistance, Ghanaian Literature of political awareness. Nigerian Literature has cut across all formulas and yet we have produced a national Literature that seems to be at odds with our seeming inability to get the administrative strength of our nation right.

I came to Nigeria directly because I was influenced by her Literature. I came to Africa because I wanted to renew the spirit of ancestral hope. I felt that there was hope in knowing where you came from and that we could renew our links, that we could strengthen our systems.

But for anybody coming from the Diaspora, you don’t have to choose any one country. Quite frankly, if you come from Jamaica, you may be inclined more to Ghana. There is a strong sense of the Akan story in the Afro-centric areas of Jamaica. If you are from Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba or Brazil, you get inclined to Yoruba. If you come from Haiti, you will look back to Angola or Central Africa. Once you begin to know about cultures, you see similarities, you see polarities that attract you. So, if one is academically inclined, you may have a sense of this root movement. I have not been so inclined. I tried to be a Pan-Africanist. For me I look at the contemporary, political issues and see all Africa’s relevance in trans-nationality terms.

But through Nigeria’s Literature I found that there seemed to be a chart. I saw Nigeria producing such rich Literature. There was no constant interaction between the creative and the service sector. When I came that was a disappointment, but Nigerians continue to be the most creative people, expressing creative elements in African life.

By failing to do something, you inspire criticism. You have Soyinka; you have Chinua Achebe and the rest. So Nigeria is a paradox by failing to meet the expectation of those who have the highest expectation. It throws up incredible responses. And, that keeps happening; that is what creative people do. That is what is happening in Literature today. But unfortunately, look at your media (the Radio, the Television), which should be the public media throwing this expression out so that people become infused with the spirit.

Our modern media is behind in Literature. When I came into this country, I lived on writing at least two serious radio drama every month and I re-branded for four years. I lived on programme production, producing a programme called ‘The story-teller’. I wrote two stories every forth-night. I was paid 7 pounds, 7 shillings but because I had the facility to do that and the medium was there to do it, I could make a living but you can’t do that now. Our media has fallen behind even the musical aspect of the media is less than what it was.

When I came into the country, there was a newspaper called, Daily Express. I remembered that the literary days in the Sunday Express was as good as any newspaper. There were incredible critiques from people like J.P. Clark and others. And so we are living a life where the spirit is willing but the material reflex is weak.

There was a time you had small group talking literary stuffs like the Mbari Club. But such things do not seem to happen any more?

Basically, the tradition did not catch up and take hold of its own creative tone. And we had the period of materialism that came up in the oil boom years, and people became enamoured; these things became less important. What is also probably responsible is the fact that nobody really got around to finding a way to make a living out of the arts as pop music and others.

There’s no one place that Soyinka’s plays are regularly staged and viewed; nowhere, and yet we have so many brilliant playwrights among the old groups that came out of Soyinka – the late Wale Ogunyemi and Bode Sowande and so on. It’s sad because we all lionise Wole. But I always tell my son that the tragedy is, all of you that lionise Wole, how many of you have read his books? But how many of those that shout loudest about Wole actually know something about his works that appeal to them.

I wish that all the taxi drivers had seen the ‘road’ in his plays. I wish everybody that shouts about him really know what Jero is, really could see the role Jero played in his book Trials of Brother Jero. This man is an artist of a popular sensitivity, but he has been put in his compartment and seen as an obscurantist, which he is not to me. We throw up great artists but we do not actually live and believe in their work. We’re all part of the fault, really.

Amongst those personalities you have mentioned: Soyinka, Clark, Okigbo and the rest. Which of them did you have more bonding with at the time?

I don’t see differences; I see similarities. The person who got me this hotel accommodation is Wole’s son, who is like my son like other Wole’s children. They know how I interact with their father. Christopher Okigbo was the first person I really bonded with in this country when I got here and he died shortly after that.

He was the one who put me in Mbari as secretary. J.P. Clark was the person who insisted that I should come to Nigeria when we met in London in 1961 or so. I was producing a programme with some Nigerian writers, and J.P. was one of them. So he said, what the hell are you doing in Europe, a man like you? You belong in Africa; you belong among us. You come to Nigeria; any time you get to Nigeria, you’ll see that we are your people. You know how J.P. talks. I took it as a joke but five years later, I remembered it when I was living in Sierra Leone; and I told myself, why not go to Nigeria?

The truth is that in my life, I just make friends and they all had some meaning to me in their works. J.P. Clark’s The Raft was actually one of the things that drove me to writing plays, and I wrote several plays. I did not act in it but I did effect in a radio production of The Raft in London. And, it was an excellent, extraordinary work.

It reminded very much of my home in Jamaica, my actual home, which is near the sea. When I got to Paris, I wrote a series of plays that were produced. Well, I don’t know where most of my works are, unfortunately. It was during the Commonwealth Festival in 1965. It was a play largely influenced by The Raft. That was a play called John Pukumaka. Pukumaka is a Jamaican term for big stick. They have influenced me in various ways.

Wole strongly influenced me not so much by his works but his activism, social activism. We have not always seen eye to eye, politically; but I strongly respect his commitment to whatever he believes in. After all, when Wole was in detention I was serving the Nigerian government on the federal side seeking to prevent secession. At that time, my biggest fear was the balkanisation of Nigeria.

Some people asked me after nearly 50 years in Nigeria, if that thing happens again, would you be on the same side? Now, I’m not so sure what side I will be. I will just pack my bags and leave. At that time we had this block against Africa’s division, and I empathise and sympathise with Wole’s plight because Wole did not promote secession. Wole believed that we need a different mood in the federal side to encourage the Igbo not to go rather than to fight them physically to prevent them going. That was his theme.

The people I was working with were no less patriotic than him. But they felt that the other side was less altruistic than Wole thought. Of course, in a military era, things were not always as planned. When I was working on the federal side, it was made publicly known that I was praying for and advocating for the release of Wole Soyinka.

I have always gotten away with that in Nigeria. I suppose it’s because I’m a very poor man and nobody thinks I have any interest. So when I make these comments, Wole will say, don’t mind Barrett. But we remain friends even when we fall on different sides on any argument but I will support him to hold his side.

With the kind of disappointment that greeted you on Africa’s failures, why didn’t you pack your bags and head back home to Jamaica or Europe?

Where do I go again? I have made my life here; I’m 68 years. This year I will be 43 years in Africa. I have been back to Europe several times and I have lived elsewhere. I was in Liberia before the civil war came. But it’s not something you can just give up. Remember that the objective I have in coming to Africa will always be there no matter how disappointing I get.

I have several children here and in Liberia, and I live for their sake, whether they know it or not. If I lived in Jamaica or Europe, I could live off writing. But the fulfillment of struggling to put in place the renewal will not be there. I have said I may be disappointed by things that have happened in Nigeria but I’m not totally disappointed by Nigerians because the struggle continues.

Like the event that happened recently (the CORA Party for nine shortlisted poets for the Nigeria Prize for Literature); it means there is progress at certain levels. The other thing is that one doesn’t just give up because your life is not your own. So, I don’t have the right to give up.

I was telling somebody that Nigeria is celebrating her 50th birthday next year. Nearly everyone I told said, what are we celebrating? They said we are celebrating nothing. I said, no; celebrate the fact that you have survived so far because of the civil war of such brutality when you were not 10 years old. And you call yourselves Nigerians 40 years after that civil war.

We who are inside Nigeria tend not to know the extent to which we are actually better off than many others. The challenge that we have to overcome is to assume our full potential, but not to say we have achieved nothing. We have achieved a lot. History has it that Nigeria picked the bills of anti-Apartheid movement in South Africa. Abacha, who we all abuse, is the same who brought peace to Sierra Leone.

Somehow, the President is looking to 2020 to set a target that can be owned. Why don’t we own our mistakes and our triumphs in the last 50 years? We don’t. Nigeria’s failures have been so spectacular that why not just celebrate the fact that we could fail so spectacularly and still be alive?

We seem to over-look not only our potentials but sometimes, willingly fail to recognise the opportunities offered us. We should work harder to own our opportunities more in the next 50 years; that should be our concern.

How familiar are you with writings coming out of Nigeria at the moment? And, are you satisfied?

There are lots of incredible writings going on. One of those I can say without fear of being challenged for nepotism is when I say my son, Igonibare (Igoni Barrett), is one of the finest writers I have seen over the years.

I’m particularly happy to say I have nothing to do with developing his talent. What I did was when I saw his talent I told him I admire it and asked him to keep it up. I have distanced myself from promoting him until he could see any of his achievement, which resulted to his book of poems that is recognised globally as a brilliant work. This made me happy.

But he is not the only one. There’s an interesting thing going on among the women. You have Chimamanda; she is a brilliant writer although I still have my reservations about her style. But, no problem. The real original is Sefi Attah. I haven’t really read much of her works except excerpts on the web but she writes beautifully. There are two others, who have not gotten equal recognitions. One of them is Kaine Agary, who won the LNG prize with Yellow Yellow last year; brilliant book.

Then there is a girl, Bimbola Adelakun with her Under the Brown Rusted Roofs. The book is not well put together. If I had the money I really would have loved to publish that book. It’s an extraordinary book. I find her potentially much more satisfying than Chimamanda, who is, herself, quite a talent. Then there is a book called Burma Boy (by Bandele Thomas, a Nigeria resident in Great Britain); extremely brilliant. Nigeria is producing a national Literature totally at odds with her inability to get her politics and management of her affairs correct.

There is so much other stuffs coming out that is not properly produced, not properly edited and so on. It means there is a lot bubbling in the pot, and how to get it out. What we need today is the coming together of the media to make this industry big.

As it was before, Nigeria Literature is beginning to have world audience again. It had it before, and it’s coming like a second time around. I think government should take note of this and encourage essay competitions, literary clubs in schools. It’s clear that the world wants to hear Nigeria; and, they want to hear something better.

In most parts of the word, Literature has a way of permeating into politics and governance. But here those who govern don’t even read the available books on major issues. Why is this so?

Actually, I can’t agree with you more. Literature elsewhere is an integral part of the spirit of governance because it has influence on those who govern.

I think that in Nigeria, an important cause of this dichotomy goes back to education. The average Nigerian is not educated enough to treat Literature as a vital element of service. And, what is regarded as higher is making money to sustain the family. But the truth is that Literature is the basis on which everything else is based.

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DR. BAYO ADEBOWALE,AFRICAN WRITER, TALKS ABOUT HOW HE SET UP AFRICAN HERITAGE RESEARCH LIBRARY!

June 6, 2009

FROM UGANDANRURAL COMMUNITYSUPPORT.ORG

Rural Community Support USA
——————————————————————————–
«»‘Study Africa In Africa’ – Tempo Newspaper (Lagos)

– 17 November 1999
An African village, it is gradually expanding to become the most
profound centre of information on Africa and its people. OLUMIDE IYANDA presents
the brain behind Africa’s ‘authentic research centre’

“Very soon the whole world will know about Adeyipo Village.”

Those were the words of Dr. Bayo Adebowale, director and founder of Africa
Heritage Research Library, the first rural community-based African studies
research library. Adeyipo, the rural community that hosts the library, is a few
kilometres away from Ibadan, capital of Oyo State. The road that connects the
village to the city demands much resilience from visitors in its rough surface.
Every dawn, a horde of local farmers at Iyana-Irefin in Ibadan boards buses to
Adeyipo through Kufi, Idi-Igba, Idi-Ogun and Akobo. The environment presents a
commune of rural centres where farming dominates daily activities. The only
diversion is the one created by Dr. Adebowale in his library of African history.
The library is currently under intense construction towards expansion. Yet, it
boasts of three existing large halls lined with over 100,000 books and other
research materials. It is observedly a centre dedicated to research works on the
African continent and the blacks in the diaspora.

It stocks materials on subjects as diverse as politics, government, history,
arts and law.

The centre is a product of an event of eleven years ago. Adebowale was then a
lecturer at the former Oyo State College of Education, Ila- Orangun, Osun State.
One fateful day in 1988, he sat before his desk, going through an academic
journal. A particular article fascinated him. In the write-up, a foreign writer
“made a lot of disparaging remarks on Africa and Africans.” He portrayed Africa
as a continent on an endless rat race. The conclusion was most alarming. The
writer insisted that most African countries were not yet ripe for independence.
Adebowale saw many contradictions in the article. He, on his own, concluded that
the writer must have been a victim of sincere ignorance. But Adebowale was not
going to cast aspersion on the article and its author. He realised that the most
appropriate solution to the problem of the writer and many others in similar
shoes is enlightenment. There and then, a project was conceived towards proper
education on Africa, its history and ways of life of the inhabitants of the
continent.

Adebowale also recalled a case of a friend on a Ph.D. project in Yoruba. The
subject of the thesis was the Yoruba publication, Aworerin. Adebowale was
particularly disappointed that the friend could not find the publication in
Nigeria. He had to travel to Norwich, England, where it was discovered that a
library in the city had all the editions of the publication. These disappointing
experiences and the realisation that researches on Africa are best done in the
African natural environment, prompted Adebowale to kick off the library with his
own personal collection of 500 books. The idea was to bring students and
researchers on Africa to the continent, not only to read books but also to
experience the reality of the subject of their researches.

Adebowale got a good helper in Yeye Akilimali Funua Olade, an African-
American who was also working as chief librarian at the College of Education in
Ila-Orangun. She is currently the chief librarian at the African Heritage
Research Library. She takes care of the technical aspects of the library work.
As it was at the inception, the current goal remains aggressive book acquisition
programme. This includes an exchange agreement with libraries all over Africa
and other parts of the world. Many individuals have also donated books across
disciplines.

Although the centre’s special interest is in African studies, it does not
discriminate in its book acquisition policy. It stocks books by writers from all
over the world and exposes its researchers to all views, leaving them to draw an
informal conclusion.

One subject that receives a lot of attention at the centre is music. The
library is a well-stocked store of materials on living and dead music legends.

A section of the library stocks pictures of jazz music greats of African
origin. There are also audio tapes of African artistes at home and in the
diaspora. An auditorium for music of Africa is under construction. Adebowale
says the auditorium is conceived to enhance appreciation of music as a means of
entertainment and education.

Musical audio tapes are being assembled to teach the history of Africa. “When
people listen to Haruna Ishola singing about Ojukwu’s war, they will remember
the Civil War of 1967 to 1970 and will reflect on its impact on their lives
now,” Adebowale insists.

The centre has a demonstration farm to inculcate in local farmers alternative
techniques in crop cultivation and control of pests. The idea of the centre had
sounded unrealistic, even crazy, at the conception. But Adebowale is today proud
of the level of awareness created even among the local farming population. The
centre has a board of Advisers constituted by eminent scholars from Nigeria and
abroad. These include Professors Niyi Osundare, Akinwunmi Ishola, Femi Osofisan,
Sam Asein, Elechi Amadi and Goke Adeniji from Nigeria. Foreigners on the board
include Ngugi Wa Thiong’o of Kenya, Oliver B Johnson and a host of other African
American intellectuals. Adebowale himself is a veteran in the field of research.
He attended the University of Ibadan between 1971 and 1974 for a Bachelor of
Arts in English. In 1976, he got a post-graduate diploma in Applied English
Linguistics. In 1978, a master’s degree in English, majoring in Stylistics was
added at the same university. He got his a doctorate from the University of
Ilorin. After many years of sojourn through various academic environments, he
was appointed the deputy rector of The Polytechnic, Ibadan last month.
Adebowale’s most impacting experience is rooted in those years at the rural area
where he had his elementary education. He has written many poems and books. Some
of these have won awards at home and abroad. His most recent novel is Out of His
Mind, published by Spectrum Books.

Presently, he spends 70 per cent of his earnings on the library and is intent
on bringing the attention of everybody to Adeyipo to sip from the ‘fountain of
authentic African research centre situated in the heart of the continent.’
P.O.Box 36330,Agodi,Ibadan,Oyo State Nigeria
africanheritagelibrary@yahoo.com
Publication Date: November 25, 1999

This entry was posted on Wednesday, November 17th, 1999 at 1:17 am and is filed under Uncategorized.

THE WRITINGS OF BAYO ADEBOWALE: A BIBLIOGRAPHY

February 14, 2009

A. THE WRITINGS OF BAYO ADEBOWALE: A BIBLIOGRAPHY:
(i) Books Published & Book Articles:1. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 1985: The Virgin – A Full-length Novel, published by Paperback Publishers, Ibadan & Bounty Press Limited, Ibadan, (1985 & 1995)

2. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 1987: Out Of His Mind – A Full-length Novel, published by Spectrum books Limited, Ibadan.

3. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 1992: Frontiers: Nigerian Short Stories (ed. Asomwan Sonnie Adagbonyin) – An Anthology of Nigerian Short Stories selected from the works of nineteen Nigerian Writers. Vide “Lonely Days” (as a short literary piece), published by Krafts Books Limited, Ibadan. 1992, pp. 49 – 55.

4. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 1996: “I Wonder,” in Poetry For Africa 2, A Poetry Anthology selected from the works of European and Nigerian Writers, (ed. Ann Berry), University of London Press Ltd., London, & Bounty Press Ltd. Ibadan 1996, p. 15.

5. BAYO ADEBOWALE:1996: “The Elephant,” in Poetry For Africa 2, A Poetry Anthology selected from the works of European and Nigerian Writers, (ed Ann Berry), University of London Press Ltd; London, & Bounty Ltd. Ibadan, 1996, p. 16

6. BAYO ADEBOWALE:1996: “The Flute,” in Poetry For Africa 2, A Poetry Anthology selected from the works of European and Nigerian Writers, (ed Ann Berry), University of London Press Ltd; London, & Bounty Ltd. Ibadan, 1996, p. 59.

7. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 1997: “Song Of the Maiden,” in Crab Orchard Review. A Journal of Creative works (A Special Issue of African, Afro-Caribbean and African-American Writing); ed. Allison Joseph, The Department of English, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, USA, Vol. 2, No. 2, Spring/Summer, 1997, p.46.

8. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 1997: “Perdition,” in Crab Orchard Review. A Journal of Creative Works (A Special Issue of African, Afro-Caribbean and African-American Writing); ed. Allison Joseph, The Department of English, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, USA, Vol. 2, No. 2, Spring/Summer, 1997, p.47.

9. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 1997: “No More,” in Crab Orchard Review. A Journal of Creative works (A Special Issue of African, Afro-Caribbean and African-American Writing); ed. Allison Joseph, The Department of English, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, USA, Vol. 2, No. 2, Spring/Summer, 1997, p.48.

10. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 2002: “Critical Introduction to Works of fifteen Nigerian Short Story Writers,” in Talent – A Collection of New Nigerian Short Stories (ed. Bayo Adebowale), Positive Press, Ibadan, pp. vi-x. Plus the fifteen Authors’ Resume, Ibid, pp.216-272.

11. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 2002: “Tanko’s Exit,” in Talent – A Collection of New Nigerian Short Stories (ed. Bayo Adebowale), Positive Press, Ibadan, 2002, pp. 1-15.

12. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 2002: “Voice of the Elder,” in Talent – A Collection of New Nigerian Short Stories (ed. Bayo Adebowale), Positive Press, Ibadan, 2002.

13. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 2002: “The New Comer,” in Talent – A Collection of New Nigerian Short Stories (ed. Bayo Adebowale), Positive Press, Ibadan, 2002, pp. 228 – 235.

14. BAYO ADEBOWALE: 2003: “Tanko’s Exit,” in A Passage to Modern Cicero, (ed. Prof. Ayo Banjo, Dr. Wale Okediran, et.al), Bookcraft Publishers, Ibadan, 2003, pp158 – 167.

(ii) Articles (Language and Literature) Published in Journals et al:
15. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The New Comer”, Horizon Journal, English Department, Univeristy of Ibadan, (ed. Matthew Umukoro et.al), March 1973, pp.40-47. and also in Life Journal (ed. Bola Aloba), November, 1973, pp.42-43.

16. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Perdition,” Index On Censorship Journal, Vol. 21 No. 9, 1992, p6. And also in African Literature Association (ALA) Journal, Vol. 19, Spring 1993, No. 2 p. 59. (Canada).

17. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “William Shakespeare and the Black Race”, in Ibadan Literary Review Journal, No. 4, April, 1974, pp. 1-9.

18. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Towards an Improvement of Audience Response and Expansion of the Nigerian Prose Fiction in English”, College Review Journal, Osun State College of Education, Ila-Orangun, 1995.

19. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Forty-Eighty Hours At Home With Niyi Osundare”, An Article on the artistic ingenuity of an African Poet Laureate – Winner of the Commonwealth Prize and the Noma Award, Published in Gists Journal, Ibadan, pp. 20-36.

20. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “In the Pockets of My Memory”, A Full-Length interview with Poet Niyi Osundare, Commissioned by and conducted for, Matatu Journal, Federal Republic of Germany, 1994.

21. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Caroline’s Choice”, Monthly Life Journal, (ed. J.K. Bolarin), Apirl, 1974, pp. 34-35.

22. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Babu’s Favourite Song”, Today’s Challenge Journal, (ed. J.K. Bolarin), April, 1974, pp. 6-11

23. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The Runaway”, Monthly Life Journal (ed. Wole Olaoye), Vol. 4 No.3, March 1987, pp. 34-35.

24. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Game of Chance”, Woman’s World, (ed. Adaora Lily Ulasi), April, 1973, pp. 32-33.

25. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Her Only Son”, Woman’s World, (ed. Adaora Lily Ulasi), April, 1973, pp. 32-33.

26. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The Big Quarrel”, Apollo Journal, (ed Toun Onabanjo), Lagos, February, 1975, pp. 19-20.

27. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The Village Hero”, Apollo Journal, (ed Toun Onabanjo), Lagos, November 1974, pp. 12 & 24.

28. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Goodbye Granny”, Apollo Journal, (ed Toun Onabanjo), Lagos, January, 1974, pp. 11 & 26.

29. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Looking After Daddy”, Apollo Journal, (ed Toun Onabanjo), Lagos, February, 1974, pp. 11&26.

30. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The Road to the Market”, Apollo Journal, (ed Toun Onabanjo), Lagos, March, 1974, pp. 20 & 26.

31. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The Long Wait”, Apollo Journal, (ed Toun Onabanjo), Lagos, April, 1974, pp. 23 & 24.

32. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The Evil Men”, Apollo Journal, (ed Toun Onabanjo), Lagos, December, 1974, pp. 19.

33. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Moment of Truth”, Apollo Journal, (ed Toun Onabanjo), Lagos, January, 1975, pp. 19 & 25.

34. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “A Call to Duty”, Spear Magazine, (ed Enyina Iroha), Lagos, May/June, 1986, pp. 32 & 34.

35. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Iron Hand”, Woman’s World, (ed. Toyin Johnson), Lagos, July, 1985 pp. 26, 26 & 34.

36. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The Hour of Decision”, Modern Woman, (ed. Adunni Oladipo), Lagos, April 1972, pp. 9 & 28.

37. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Broken Melody”, Modern Woma</strong>n, (ed. Adunni Oladipo), Lagos, April 1972, pp. 9 & 28.

38. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The Hour of Shame”, Modern Woman, (ed. Adunni Oladipo), Lagos, July, 1972, p. 9: and also Modern Woman, August 1972, p.3.

39. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Misplaced Trust”, Modern Woman, (ed. Adunni Oladipo, Lagos, June 1974, pp. 27-30.

40. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Conspiracy At Home”, Modern Woman, (ed. Adunni Oladipo, Lagos, January 1975, pp. 30-35.

41. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The Shadow Between”, Modern Woman, (ed. Adunni Oladipo, Lagos, July 1975, pp. 28-29.

42. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Burden of a Secret”, Modern Woman, (ed. Adunni Oladipo, Lagos, July 1974, pp. 27-30.

43. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The Bleeding Heart”, Modern Woman, (ed. Adunni Oladipo, Lagos, September 197, pp. 27-30.

44. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “The Guilty Mind”, Modern Woman, (ed. Adunni Oladipo, Lagos, November 1975, pp. 29-30.

45. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Partners In Sorrow”, Modern Woman, (ed. Adunni Oladipo, Lagos, February 1976, pp. 31 & 38.

46. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Divided Household”, Modern Woman, (ed. Adunni Oladipo, Lagos, February 1977, pp. 31 & 38.

47. BAYO ADEBOWALE: “Valley of Judgment”, Happy Home, (ed. Sam. Amuka-Pemu) Lagos, February 1975, pp. 35 – 36.

B. UNIVERSITY DISSERTATIONS ON THE WRITINGS OF BAYO ADEBOWALE:

1. “The Use of Symbolism in Bayo Adebowale’s The Virgin” – A 657 English Stylistics Research Project for the Master of Arts Degree (1991), University of Ilorin. Department of Modern European Languages, by Lawal M. Babatunde.

2. “Marital Sensibility in Bayo Adebowale’s Novels: The Virgin and Out of His Mind” – A Final Year Bachelor of Arts Degree Project (1992), University of Ilorin, Department of Modern European Languages, by Ayoola Samuel Olayiwola.

3. “A Comparative Study of the Theme of Innocence in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of The D’urberville and Bayo Adebowale’s The Virgin” – A Final Year Bachelor of Arts Degree Project (1995), University of Ilorin, Department of Modern European Languages, by Abaya A. Elukpo.

4. “A Compartive Study of the Theme of Social Realities in Bayo Adebowale’s Out of His Mind and Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s Weep Not Child” – A Final Year Bachelor of Arts degree Project (1995), University of Ilorin, Department of Modern European Languages, by Dairo Bunmi.

5. “A Comparative Theme of Cultural Conflict in Bayo Adebowale’s The Virgin and Adeze Madu’s Broken Promise – A Final year Bachelor of Arts Degree Project (1995), University of Ilorin, Department of Modern European Languages, by Joseph Foluke.

6. “A Comparative Study of the Concept of Traditionalism and Modernism in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure and Bayo Adebowalke’s The Virgin” – A Final Year Bachelor of Arts Degree Project (1995), University of Ilorin, Department of Modern European Languages, by Odunola E. Folorunso.

7. “The Nigerian Novel – A Megaphone of It s Society: Bayo Adebowale’s Out of His Mind As A Case Study” – A Final Year Bachelor of Degree Project (1996), University of Ilorin of Modern European Languages, by Ogunyileka, G.S.

8. “Youth Response to Nigerian Prose Fiction in English: A Critical Study” – A Ph.D. Thesis (1997), University of Ilorin, Department of Modern European Languages, by Samuel Olubayo Adebowale. Bayo Adebowale’s Out of His Mind analysed and cited on several pages of the thesis.

9. “The Artistic World of Bayo Adebowale.” – A Final Year Bachelor of Arts Degree Project (1999), University of Ibadan, Department of English, by Edosa Aghedo.

10. “Socio-culrutal Ethos in Camara Laye’s The African Child and Bayo Adebowale’s The Virgin” – A Master of Arts (Literature in English) Dissertation (2006) University of Ilorin, Department of English by Kayode, Esther Bola.

C. REVIEWS OF BAYO ADEBOWALE’S CREATIVE WORKS INBOOKS AND LEARNED JOURNALS:

1. “Lexical Clues to Thematic Development in Bayo Adebowale’s The Virgin”, by Dr. Ayo Ogunsiji (of the English Department, University of Ibadan), published in Oye. Ogun State University, Department of English Journal, Vol. 12, 1991, pp. 13-20.

2. “The Creative Arts of Bayo Adebowale” – A Critical Study of Bayo Adebowale’s Writings, including fifteen of his published Short Stories and his two novels, The Virgin and Out of His Mind (120 pages), by a frontline Nigerian Journalist, Yinka Tella of the African Guardian Journal (1990)

3. “Bayo Adebowale’s The Virgin and Out of His Mind: A study of the Aesthetics of the Conflicts Between Traditionalism and Modernism,” by Professor Sam A. Adewoye (of the University of Ilorin, Modern European Languages Department) published in The African Novel – Another Evaluative View, Majab Publishers, Lagos, 1996, pp. 54 – 75.

D. PUBLISHED CRITICAL APPRAISALS OF BAYO ADEBOWALE’S NOVELS AND HIS EDITED ANTHOLOGY OF SHORT STORIES:

(i) Nigerian Novelists – Out of His Mind listed in an Annotated Bibliography of Nigerian Authors, by Professor Wendy Grisworld, University of Chicago, United States of America, published in Commonwealth Literature Journal, 1990.

(ii) “A Lasting Impression: Out of His Mind Staged to the Admiration of Literary Buffs, “Dele Ologunde, African Concord, September 1988, Vol. 2, No 33, p. 40.

(iii) Out of His Mind: Another Novel Goes on Stage” – A Review of stage adaptation of the novel, Dele Ologunde, The Guardian, August 30, 1988, p.16

(iv) “The Theatrical Beauty of a Living Prose” – A review of Out of His mind, Dele Ologunde, Daily Sketch, Thursday August 18, 1988, p.5.

(v) “Newspaper Reviews: Purpose and Intention” – An Examination of the previous review of Out of His Mind, Larry Ahmed, Nigerian Tribune, Tuesday, December 1, 1987, p.11.

(vi) “Out of His Depth” – A review of Out of His Mind, Nosa Osaigbovo, Daily Sketch, Thursday, October 8, 1987, p.5

(vii) “The Writer and His Crtics” – A Review of previous review of Out of His Mind, Tony Owogbade, Daily Sketch, Thursday, October 29, 1987, p.6.

(viii) “Osaigbovo’s Review is Biased” – A Review of previous review of Out of His Mind, Ayo Ogunsiji, Sunday Glory, October 18, 1987, p.6.

(ix) “These Qualms Apart, a Story is Fairly Told” – A Review of Out of His Mind, Bridget Annuwa Owhotu, The Guardian, Monday, October 19, 1987, p.17.

(x) “Out of His Mind” – A Review of Out of His Mind by Reviews Editor, Quality Magazine, November, 1987, Vol. 1. No. 6

(xi) “The Review of A Review” – A Review of previous reviews of Out of His Mind. Larry Ahmed. Daily Sketch. Friday, October, 23 1987 p.7

(xii) Out of His Mind” – A Review of Out Of His Mind. Joseph Dominic, Lagos Life, Thursday, October 13 – Wednesday, October 21, 1987, pp.7 & 10.

(xiii) “Loyalty Disaster” – A Reply to a Review of Out of His Mind, Nosa Osaigbovo, Daily Sketch, Tuesday, November 5, 1987, p.5

(xiv) “What A Review Is” – An Assessment of the Various Reviews of Out of His Mind S. Ayo Winjobi. Daily Sketch, Thursday, Nov,12, 1987.

(xv) “Graduate Worker Runs Out Of His Mind” – A Review of Out of His Mind, George Abana. Sunday Glory, October 11, 1987, p6

(xvi) “Out of His Mind” – A Review of Out of His Mind, Ayo Ogunsiji, Lady Love, Vol. 1 no. 10, May 6, 1988, p.27.

(xvii) “Out of His Mind – Listed in Africana Selected Recent Acquisition No. 124, December 1988, Michigan State University Africana Library, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America, p. 49.

(xviii) “Out of His M</strong>ind” – A Review of Out of His Mind, Review Editor, Monthly Life, December, 1987, p. 29.

(xix) “Out of His Mind” – A Review of Out of His Mind, George Abana, New Nigerian, Tuesday October, 27, 1987, p. 12.

(xx) Out of A Lecturer’s Mind” – A Review of Out of His Mind, Kolaso Kargbo, Prime People, Vol. 2, No. 24, November 13-19, p. 12

(xxi) “The Wages of Sin” – A Review of The Virgin, Larry Ahmed, The Punch, December 11, 1985, pp.8-9.

(xxii) “Mourning the Destruction of An Essence” – A Review of The Virgin, Ayo Ogunsiji, Messages – A Creative Journal of the Department of the English, OYSCE, Ila-Orangun, No. 111, Vol. 001, 1986, pp. 16-18

(xxiii) “Destruction of An Essence” – A Review of The Virgin, Ayo Ogunsiji, Sunday Glory, March 15, 1987, p.8

(xxiv) “Morality Among Youths Examined” – A Review of The Virgin, Larry Ahmed, The Guardian, Jan. 6, 1986 p.10.

(xxv) “The Virgin” – A Review of The Virgin, Jare Ajayi, Lady Love, Vol. 1, No. 9, April 29, 1988, p.32.

(xxvi) “The Story of A Broken Pot” – A Review of The Virgin, Same Adesua, Daily Sketch, November 28, 1985, p.5

(xxvii) “Are you A Virgin? – A Review of The Virgin, Larry Ahmed, Daily Sketch,
February 20, 1986, p 5.

(xxviii) “The Broken Pot” – A Review of The Virgin, Andrew Ehimwenma, Sunday Punch, May 17, 1987, p.1.

(xxix) “Yoruba’s Belief in Virginity” – A Review of The Virgin, Bayo Akinpelu, Sunday Glory, Noveomber 13, 1988, p.6.

(xxx) “Defiling A Virgin Culture” – A Review of The Virgin, Andrew Ehimwenma, Daily Sketch, June 18, 1987, p.5

(xxxi) “Prisms Of the Mind” – A Review of The Virgin, Biyi Odunlade, Nigerian Tribune, October 20, 1987, p.8.

(xxxii) “I am In Love with Books” – Personality Interview of the Author of The Virgin, Ebika Anthony, Daily Sketch, April 15, 1999, p. 12

(xxxiii) “The Traditional Values of Virginity” – A Review of The Virgin, Tope Abiola, Nigerian Tribune, January 9, 2001, p. 26

(xxxiv) “I Sometime Write Stark Naked” – Personality Interview of the Author of The Virgin, Sina Oladehinde, Nigerian Tribune, October 26, 2001, p.16

(xxxv) “Of Dauda, Awero and The Virgin” – A Review of The Virgin, Ebika Anthony, The Monitor, November 4, 2001, p. A8

(xxxvi) “The White Handkerchief: New Wine In Old Bottle.” – A Review of Film Adaptation of The Virgin, Demola Awoyokun, The Guardian, October 4, 2002, p. 32

(xxxvii) “Symphony of Bata Drums and Poetry” – A Write up on the Author of
The Virgin, Adebanji Adeyanju and Lekan Alao, Nigerian Tribune,
December 17, 200.

(xxxviii) “A short Harvest of intrigues’’- A Review of Talent (ed. Bayo Adebowale), Steve Ayorinde, The Comet , February 3, 2003,p 16.

(xxxix) “Exposing the Talents of A Virgin Continent”- a Review of Talent (ed. Bayo Adebowale), Akintayo Abodunrin, Nigeria Tribune, April 28, 2003, p 37.

(xl) “ A New Deal in Short Story Writing” – A Review of Talent (ed. Bayo Adebowale), Chux Ohai, Daily Independent, April 28, 2003, p E5.

(xli) “ The Handkerchief: A Quest for Self-Cultural Interrogation”- A Review of Film Adaptation of The Virgin. Demola Awoyokun, The Guardian, April 25, 2003 , p 30.

(xlii) “ Tutuola Back From Land of the Ghosts”- A Review of Talent (ed. Bayo Adebowale). Agatha Eke, The Sun , June25, 2003, p 37.

(xliii) “ I Don’t See Acting As A Career”- Personality Interview of Kabirat Kafidipe Araparegangan (On White Handkerchief – The Film Adaptation of The Virgin ) . Saturday Tribune, August 16, 2003, p .27.

(xliv) “Hunger Hardship Can Serve As Impetus to Creative Writing” – Personality Interview of Bayo Adebowale, Chux Ohai, Daily Independent, November 24, 2003 , p,E4.

(xlv) “ About Virgins and a Recurring Moral Dilemma”- A Review of The Virgin, Chux Ohai, Daily Independent, December 22, 2003, p . E3.

PUBLISHED ARTICLES ON THE PROJECTS OF BAYO ADEBOWALE:

i. “African Heritage Research Library Seeks Exchanges” – Write-up on AHRL, Stephen Arnold, African Literature Association Bulletin, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, ‘ Volume 14, Spring 1988, No. 2, p.48.

ii. “African Studies Library” – Write-up : on AHRL, Editor, American Writer (Journal of the National Writer Union), New York , USA, Vol. VIII, Issue 3,Winter 1989-90, p . 14.

iii. “The African Heritage Research Library (AHRL) – A Pioneer Center” – Write-up on AHRL, in The Black Collegian, New Orleans LA, USA, November/December 1990, p , p.5.

iv. “General News Of Interest to the Region” – Write- up AHRL , Editor, International Federation of library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Newsletter; Sao Paulo, Brazil, No 8, June 1991, p . 5.

v. “African Heritage Research Library” – Write-up on AHRL, Editor Isivivane: Journal of Letter and Arts in Africa and Diaspora, Berlin, West Germany, January, 19A91,p. 49.

vi. “African Heritage Research Library Needs Donations”- Write-up on AHRL, Editor, The Black Collegian, New Orleans, LA USA, September/October, 1991, p. 19.

vii. “I Proved Critics Wrong” – Write-up on AHRL, yinka Peter, Classique, January 27 1992, p . 9.

viii. “Roots”- Write-up on AHRL, Yinka Tella, The African Guardian Vol. 7, No. 32, August 31, 1992, p. 9.

ix. “Nigeria: The African Heritage Research Library” – Write-up On AHRL, Editors, Conexiones Journal, Michigan USA Vol. 4, No.2, November 1992,p.17.

x. “African Heritage Research Library”- Write-up on AHRL, Editors, IRED-Forum, Geneva, Switzerland, No 46, January-March, 1993, pp. 12 & 46.

xi. “Research Library Serves Rural Community” – Write-up on AHRL, Editor, African Farmer, New York, USA, October 1993, p. 55

xii. “A Dream Unfolding” – A write-up on African Heritage Research Library, AHRL, Professor Niyi Osundare, Newswatch, December 20, 1993 pp 36-37.

xiii. Heritage – A Turn In History” – Write-up on AHRL, Ngozi Abanobi-Uka, African Vision, Lagos Vol. 1 No. 13, July 24, 1995, p. 30.

xiv. “The Making of A Dream” – Write-up on AHRL, Ngozi Abanobi-Uka, African Vision, Lagos. Vol. 1 No. 13, July 24, 1995, p. 30.

xv. Forgotten In the Countryside” – Write-up on AHRL, Yomi Kassim, The Monitor, pp. xii – xiii, December 3, 1995.

xvi. Clearing House for African Culture” – Write-up on AHRL, Olayiwole Adeniji, The Guardian, November 30, 1996, p. 36.

xvii. “African Heritage Research Library: An Embattled Dream” – Write-up on AHRL, Yemi Ogunsola, Sunday Tribune, October 5, 1997, pp 9 & 11.

xviii. “Giving Africa Its Pride” – Write-up on AHRL, Tunde Aremu, The Punch, November 13, 1997, p. 28.

xix. “A Boom To Intellectual Growth” – Write-up on AHRL, Ade Ajayi, Daily Monitor, May 20, 1999, p. 14.

xx. “Slaving For the Society to be Literate” – Write-up on AHRl, Ade Ajayi, Daily Monitor, May 20, 1999, p. 14

xxi. “African Research Centre Takes Shape at Ibadan” – Write-up AHRL, Kayode Ogunbunmi, The Guardian, July 4, 1999, p.45.

xxii. “African Heritage Research Library Lives On” – Write-up on AHRL, Akinyinka Omoniyi, Itanna Searchlight, July 11, 1999, p.9.

xxiii. “Hello There, Intellectuals! This is Our Own Bethlehem” – Write-up on AHRL, Joel Ayanlola, Daily Sketch, July on AHRL, Olumide Iyanda, Tempo, November 25, 1999, p.15.

xxiv. “Study Africa in Africa” – Write-up on AHRL, Olumide Iyanda, Tempo November 25, 1999, p. 15.

xxv. “Making Africa Answer For Itself’ – Write-up on AHRL, Tunde Aremu, The Punch, December 16, 1999, p.28.

xxvi. “A Feather to His Cap” – Write-up on AHRL, Adebola Adewole & Uche Maduemesi et al, Tell Magazine, Febraruy 21, 2000, p. 50.

xxvii. “New Centre for Research Works Emerges” – Write-up on AHRL, Kehinde Adio, Nigerian Tribune, January 28, 2000, p. 19.

xxviii. “Welcome to the Village of Books” – Write-up on AHRL, Ebika Anthony, Nigerian Tribune, February 15, 2000. p. 27.

xxix. “AHRL Extends Library Services to Schools” – Write-up on AHRL, Kehinde Adio, Nigerian Tribune, April 21, 2000, p 19.

xxx. “On the Track of an African Heritage” – Write-up on AHRL, Akeem Lasisi, The Comet, July 28, 2000 pp 35- 36.

xxxi. “Studying Africa In Nigeria” – Write-up on AHRL, Idowu Adelusi, Sunday Tribune, August 13, 2000 p. 17.

xxxii. “Rooting For African Renaissance” – Write-up on AHRL, Joseph Musa, This Day, January 5, 2001, Vol, 7, No. 2084, p. 24.

xxxiii. “Resuscitating the African Heritage” – Write-up on AHRL, Joseph Musa, This Day, January 5, 2001, Vol. 7 No. 2084, p. 34.

xxxiv. “African Music Educators and Library Facilities” – Write-up on AHRL, Kehinde Adio, Nigerian Tribune, February 2, 2001, pp. 18-19.

xxxv. “Oyo Governor Set to Support African Heritage Research Library” – Write-up on AHRL, Kehinde Adio, Nigerian Tribune, April 6, 2001, p. 14.

xxxvi. “A Hidden Fountain of Knowledge” – Write-up on AHRL, Senayon S. Olaoluwa, Post Express, October 7, 2001, p. A8.

xxxvii. “Treasure House in the African Heartland” – Write-up on AHRL, Sina Oladehinde, Nigerian Tribune, January 18, 2002, p.16.

xxxviii. “AHRL Education Day Holds March 30” – Write up on AHRL, Kehinde Adio, Nigerian Tribune, January 26, 2002, p.23.

xxxix. Culture of Reading is Going Down in Nigeria” – Write-up on AHRL, Titilayo Ogunsan, The Monitor, February 26, 2002, p. 23.

xl. “Adeyipo: A Library Grows in a Forest” – Write-up on AHRL, Akeem Lasisi, The Comet, March 6, 2002, p. 35

xli. “An Heritage for Africans’ – Write-up AHRL, Muyiwa Ojo, The Monitor, March 16, 2002, p. 5.

xlii. “I Use Pictures to Educate Illiterate People” – Write-up on AHRL, Kehinde Adio, Nigerian Tribune, March 29, 2002 p. 18.

xliii. “AHRL Commissions African Music Auditorium” – Write-up on AHRL, Enam Obiosio, Sunday Vanguard, April 7, 2002, p. 41.

xliv. “Grassroots Education Needs Government Backing” – Write-up on AHRL, Kehinde Adio, Nigerian Tribune, April 26, 2002, pg. 23.

xlv. “A Dose of African Heritage” – Write-up on AHRL, Yinka Fabowale, Tell Magazine, May 6, 2002, p. 15.

xlvi. “A Treasure In the Forest” – Write-up on AHRL, Augustine Avwode, Sunday Punch, July 21, 20002, pp. 23 & 25.

xlvii. “Bi Asa Ati Ise Eeyan Dudu Ko Se Ni Para Nise Ile Ikawe Wa” – Write-up on AHRL, Seye Arowolo, Alaroye Magazine, October 29, 2002, p. 23.

xlviii. “AHRL Organises Picture Education Seminar for Villagers” – Write-up on AHRL, Kehinde Adio, Nigerian Tribune, December 27, 2002, pp. 26 -27.

xlix. “Giant Stride of An African Monument” – Write-up on AHRL, Sina Oladehinde, Nigerian Tribune, January 21, 2003, p. 34.

l. “Monitoring Elections in the Village of Books” – Write-up on AHRL, Funso Iroko, Nigerian Tribune, October 28, 2003, p.35.

li. “Dance, Poetry and Carnival of Books” – Write-up on AHRL, Funso Iroko, Nigerian Tribune, October, 28, 2003, 17.

lii. “African Heritage Research Library Plans to Expand the Frontiers of Reading and Literacy” – Write-up on AHRL, Chux Ohai, Daily Independent, December 1, 2003, p. E4.

liii. “African Wealth of Knowledge Yet Undiscovered” – Write-up on AHRL, Bode Adefolu, Showbix Expo, February/March, 2004, Vol. 1, No. 3, p. 20.

liv. “Preaching the Gospel of Total Education” – Write-up on AHRL, Akeem Lasisi. The Punch, July 5, 2004, p. 13.

lv. “Three Days of Talking Poetry in Adeyipo Village” – Write-up on AHRL’s hosting of CFP members Benjamin Njoku, Sunday Vanguard, June 20, 2004.

lvi. “African Heritage Research Library (AHRL) Nigeria” in Year Book of International Organizations 2004/2005 & 2005/2006, Rue Washington 40, B-1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.

LANGUAGES OF NIGERIA ACCORDING TO WIKIPEDIA.ORG

May 5, 2008

FROM wikipedia.org

Languages of Nigeria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Linguistic map of Nigeria, Cameroon, and Benin.Nigeria

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Culture of Nigeria

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The number of languages currently estimated and catalogued in Nigeria is 521. This number includes 510 living languages, two second languages without native speakers and 9 extinct languages. In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The official language of Nigeria, English, the former colonial language, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country. The major languages spoken in Nigeria are Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, Edo, Efik, Ibibio and Annang language, Adamawa Fulfulde, Idoma, and Central Kanuri. Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, English, being the official language, is widely used for education, business transactions and for official purposes. English, however, remains an exclusive preserve of a small minority of the country’s urban elite, and is not spoken in rural areas. With approximately 75% of Nigeria’s populace in the rural areas, the major languages of communication in the country remain tribal languages, with the most widely spoken being Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. Foreign minorities speak their own languages aside from English and/or major native languages as their second languages.

Nigeria’s linguistic diversity is a microcosm of Africa as a whole, encompassing three major African languages families: the Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, and the Niger-Congo A branch of the Niger-Congo family. Nigeria also has one unclassifiable language, Cen Tuum, spoken by a few old people among the Cham in Gombe State. This may represent an intriguing relic of an even greater diversity prior to the spread of the current language families.

Contents [hide]
1 Niger-Congo languages
2 Afro-Asiatic languages
3 See also
4 Wikimedia
5 References
6 External links

[edit] Niger-Congo languages
Niger-Congo predominates in central and southern Nigeria; the main branches represented in Nigeria are Mande, Atlantic, Gur, Kwa, Benue-Congo and Adamawa-Ubangian. Mande is represented by the Busa cluster and Kyenga in the northwest. Fulfulde is the single Atlantic language, of Senegambian origin but now spoken by cattle pastoralists across the Sahel and largely in the North of Nigeria by the Fulani (sometimes Fulbe) diaspora. The Ijoid languages are spoken across the Niger Delta and include Ịjọ (=Ijaw), Kalabari and the intriguing remnant language, Defaka, while the Ibibio language is spoken across the coastal southeastern part of Nigeria and includes Efik, Annnang, oron, Eket, and Ikot Abasi. The single Gur language spoken is Baatọnun, in the Northwest. The Adamawa-Ubangian languages are spoken between central Nigeria and the Central African Republic. Their westernmost representatives in Nigeria are the Tula-Waja languages. The Kwa languages are represented by the Gun group in the extreme southwest, which is affiliated to the Gbe languages in Benin and Togo.

The classification of the remaining languages is controversial; Joseph Greenberg classified those without noun-classes, such as Yoruba, Igbo, and Ibibio, as ‘Eastern Kwa’ and those with classes as ‘Benue-Congo’. This was reversed in an influential 1989 publication and reflected on the 1992 map of languages, where all these were considered Benue-Congo. Recent opinion, however, has been to revert to Greenberg’s distinction. The literature must thus be read with care and due regard for the date. It should be noted that there are several small language groupings in the Niger Confluence area, notably Ukaan, Akpes, Ayere-Ahan and Ọkọ, whose inclusion in these groupings has never been satisfactorily argued.

Former Eastern Kwa, i.e. West Benue-Congo would then include Yoruboid, i.e. Yoruba, Itsekiri and Igala, Akokoid (eight small languages in Ondo, Edo and Kogi state), Edoid including Edo in Edo State, Igboid, Ibibio, Efik, Annnang, Idomoid (Idoma) and Nupoid (Nupe) and perhaps include the other languages mentioned above. East Benue-Congo includes Kainji, Plateau (46 languages, notably Eggon), Jukunoid, Dakoid and [[Cross River languages|Cross River]. Apart from these, there are numerous Bantoid languages, which are the languages immediately ancestral to Bantu. These include Mambiloid, Ekoid, Bendi, Beboid, Grassfields and Tivoid languages. The geographic distribution of Nigeria’s Niger-Congo languages is not limited to south-central Nigeria, as migration allows their spread to the linguistically Afro-Asiatic northern regions of Nigeria, as well as throughout West Africa and abroad. Yoruba is spoken as a ritual language in cults such as the Santeria in the Caribbean and South-Central America, and the Berbice Dutch language in Surinam is based on an Ijoid language.

Even the above listed linguistic diversity of the Niger-Congo in Nigeria is deceptively limiting, as these languages may further consist of regional dialects that may not be mutually intelligible. As such some languages, particularly those with a large number of speakers, have been standardized and received a romanized orthography. Nearly all languages appear in a Roman script when written, often with modifications allowing for a language’s particularities. The Yoruba and Igbo languages are notable examples of this process; Standard Yoruba came into being due to the work Samuel Crowther, the first African bishop of the Anglican Church and owes most of its lexicon to the dialects spoken in Ọyọ and Ibadan. Since Standard Yoruba’s constitution was determined by a single author rather than by a consensual linguistic policy by all speakers, the Standard has been attacked regarding for failing to include other dialects and spurred debate as to what demarcates “genuine Yoruba”. The more historically recent standardization and romanization of Igbo has provoked even more controversy due to its dialectical diversity, but the Central Igbo dialect has gained the widest acceptace as the standard-bearer; however many such as Chinua Achebe have dismissed standardization as colonial and conservative attempts to simplify a complex mosaic of languages. Such controversies typify inter- and intra-ethnic conflict endemic to post-colonial Nigeria.

Linguistically speaking, all demonstrate the varying phonological features of the Niger-Congo family to which they belong, these include the use of tone, nasality, and particular consonant and vowel systems; more information is available here.

[edit] Afro-Asiatic languages
The Afro-Asiatic languages of Nigeria divide into Chadic, Semitic and Berber. Of these, Chadic languages predominate, with 70+ languages. Semitic is represented by various dialects of Arabic spoken in the Northeast and Berber by the Tuareg-speaking communities in the extreme Northwest.

The Hausa language is the most well-known Chadic language in Nigeria; though there is a paucity of statistics on native speakers in Nigeria, the language is spoken by 24 million people in West Africa and is the second language of 15 million more. Hausa has therefore emerged as lingua franca throughout much of West Africa and the Sahel in particular. The language is spoken primarily amongst Muslims, and the language is often associated with Islamic culture in Nigeria and West Africa on the whole. Hausa is classified as a West Chadic language of the Chadic grouping, a major subfamily of Afro-Asiatic. Culturally, the Hausa people have become closely integrated with the Fulani following the jihadist establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate by the Fulani Uthman dan Fodio in the 19th century. Hausa is the official language of a number states in Northern Nigeria and the most important dialect is generally regarded as that spoken in Kano,an Eastern Hausa dialect, which is the standard variety used for official purposes. Eastern dialects also include some dialects spoken in Zaria, and Bauchi; Western Hausa dialects include Sakkwatanchi spoken in Sokoto, Katsinanchi in Katsina Arewanchi in both Gobir and Adar,Kebbi, and Zamfara. Katsina is transitional between Eastern and Western dialects. Northern Hausa dialects include Arewa and Arawa, while Zaria is a prominent Southern tongue version; Barikanchi is a pidgin formerly used in the military.

Hausa is a highly atypical Chadic language, with a reduced tonal system and a phonology influenced by Arabic. Other well-known Chadic languages include Ngas, Mwaghavul, Bole, Ngizim, Bade and Bacama. In the East of Nigeria and on into Cameroun are the Central Chadic languages, such as Bura, the Higi cluster and Marghi. These are highly diverse and remain very poorly described. Many Chadic languages are severely threatened; recent searches by Bernard Caron for Southern Bauchi languages show that even some of those recorded in the 1970s have disappeared. However, unknown Chadic languages are still being reported, witness the recent description of Dyarim.

Hausa, as well as other Afro-Asiatic languages like Bade (another West Chadic language spoken in Yobe State), have historically been written in a modified Arabic script known as ajami, however, the modern official orthography is now a romanization known as boko first introduced by the British regime in the 1930s.

[edit] See also
List of languages of Nigeria

[edit] Wikimedia
Systematic graphic of the Niger-Congo languages with numbers of speakers

[edit] References
Blench, Roger (2002) Research on Minority Languages in Nigeria in 2001. Ogmios.
Blench, Roger (1998) ‘The Status of the Languages of Central Nigeria’, in Brenzinger, M. (ed.) Endangered languages in Africa. Köln: Köppe Verlag, 187-206. online version
Crozier, David & Blench, Roger (1992) An Index of Nigerian Languages (2nd edition). Dallas: SIL.

[edit] External links
Ethnologue Listing of Nigerian Languages
Blench, Roger (n.d.) Atlas of Nigerian Languages, ed. III (revised and amended edition of Crozier & Blench 1992)
[hide]v • d • eLanguages of Africa

CULTURE IN NIGERIA ACCORDING TO WIKIPEDIA.ORG

May 5, 2008

from wikipedia.org

Culture of Nigeria
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The Culture of Nigeria is shaped by Nigeria’s multiple ethnic groups. The country has over 250 different languages and cultures. The four largest are the Hausa-Fulani who are predominant in the north, the Igbo who are predominant in the southeast, the Yoruba who are predominant in the southwest and the Benin Tribes who are predominant in the west, 80 percent of the Benins tend to be Christian while the remaining 20 percent worship idols which is called Ogu. These are followed by the Ibibio/Annang/Efik Efik, Ibibio, Annang people of the coastal southeastern Nigeria and the Ijaw of the Nigerian Delta.

The rest of Nigeria’s ethnic groups (sometimes called “mini-minorities”) are found all over the country but especially in the densely populated south. The Hausa tend to be Muslim and the Igbo, Christian. Ibibio/Annang/Efik Efik, Ibibio, Annang people are mainly Christian as Christianity and Western system entered Nigeria through their capital city Calabar. The Practitioners of both Christianity and Islam are found among the Yoruba. Indigenous religious practices remain important, especially in the south, and are often blended with Christian beliefs.

Nigeria is famous for its English literature and its popular music. Since the 1990s the Nigerian movie industry, sometimes called “Nollywood” has emerged as a fast-growing cultural force all over the continent.

Traditional music often include musicians on Gongon drums.

Other traditional cultural expressions are found in the various masquerades of Nigeria, such as the Eyo masquerades, the Ekpe and Ekpo Masquerades of Ibibio/Annang/Efik Efik, Ibibio, Annang people Ekpe Society in Calabar, the inventor of Nsibidi script of Nigeria and the Northern Edo Masquerades. Yoruba wooden masks are used in the Gelede masquerades.

[edit] Nigerian artists and writers
Internationally-known artists and writers from Nigeria include writer Chinua Achebe, Odia Ofeimum, James Ene Henshaw, Ntienyong Udo Akpan, E. E. Nkanga, Sola Osofisan, Chidi Anthony Opara, Ogaga Ifowodo, Maik Nwosu, Obi Nwakanma. juju musician King Sunny Ade, Nigerian-born Grammy winning jazz singer Sade (Helen Folasade Adu), free-style jazz musician Fela Kuti, who uses traditional African call-and-response, writer Ben Okri, playwright Ken Saro-Wiwa, Nobel prize winning writer Wole Soyinka, and British/Nigerian artist Yinka Shonibare.

[edit] External links
Things Come Together: A Journey through Literary Lagos
Overview of Nigeria’s Culture for business tourists
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LIST OF NIGERIAN POETS ACCORDING TO WIKIPEDIA.ORG

May 5, 2008

from wikipedia.org

List of Nigerian poets
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nigeria

Poets from Nigeria include: BAYO ADEBOWALE (1944-)

Toyin Adewale-Gabriel
Gbola Adiamoh
Dr. Jerry Agada
Richard Ugbede Ali
Chidi Amaechi
Ngozi Obasi Awa
Ibukun Babarinde
Tubal Rabbi Cain
John Pepper Clark
Etebom Ekpo
Tade Ipadeola
Okinba Launko Aka Femi Osofisan
Ahmed Maiwada
Ayodele Morocco-Clarke
Uche Nduka
Austyn Njoku
Onyeka Nwelue
Kenneth Nwobosi
Emeka Chike Nwogu
Maik Nwosu
Enenche F. Ogiri
Seni Ogunkola
Tolu Ogunlesi
Chris Ogunlowo
Obododimma Oha
Ezenwa Ohaeto
Francis Ohanyido
Paula Iriowen Ohanyido
Dr. Tanure Ojaide
Gabriel Okara
Promise Okekwe
Diego Odoh Okenyodo
Niran Okewole
Christopher Okigbo
Ike Okonta
Olatubosun Oladapo
Prince Joshua Olawuyi
Emmanuel Onwi
Chidi Anthony Opara
Dennis Osadebay
Dare Oshinuga
Sola Osofisan
Niyi Osundare
Naan Pocen
Remi Raji
Ken Saro-Wiwa
Wole Soyinka
Mazui Tonganawa
Chime Hilary Uchenna
Ugonna Wachuku

LIST OF NIGERIAN WRITERS ACCORDING TO WIKIPEDIA.ORG

May 5, 2008

from wikipedia.org

List of Nigerian writers
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nigeria

A
Adam Abdulahi
Yusufu Adamu
Chris Abani
Andy Abulu
Chinua Achebe (1930– )
Wale AdebanwiBAYO ADEBOWALE (1944-)
Remi Adedeji (1937– )
Abiola Adegboyega
Dapo Adeniyi
Mobolaji Adenubi
Kole Ade-Odutola
Kayode Aderinokun
Pius Adesanmi
Akin Adesokan
Sean Adetula
Toyin Abiodun
Toyin Adewale-Gabriel
Sola Adeyemi (1965– )
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (1977– )
Emeka Agbayi
Rita Aghadiuno[1]
Tolu Ajayi (1946– )
Segun Akinlolu
Segun Akinyode
Akilu Aliyu
Odinaka Anudu
Isiaka Aliagan
Olufunmi Aluko
T.M. Aluko (1918– )
Elechi Amadi (1934– )
Ifi Amadiume
Peter Anny-Nzekwue
Ike Anya
G. O. Apata
Sefi Atta (1964– )
Babatunde Awoyele
Anne Axis
Unoma Nguemo Azuah
Nnorom Azuonye
Tunde Akinloye

[edit] B-E
Babafemi Badejo
Francoise Balogun
Biyi Bandele
A. Igoni Barrett (1979– )
Charles Bodunde
Qasim Bolaji-Ashogbon
Tubal Rabbi Cain (1964–)
Chidi Anthony Opara
Chin Ce (1966– )
John Pepper Clark (1935– )
Samuel Ajayi Crowther (1809–1891)
Olumbe Bassir
Folasayo Dele-Ogunrinde
Umaru Dembo
David Diai
Jude Dibia (1975– )
Ebereonwu
Philip Efiong[[2]]
Philip Effiong jr.[3]
Etebom Ekpo
Michael Echeruo (1937– )
Amatoritsero (Godwin) Ede
Eyitemi Egwuenu
Victor Ehikhamenor
Cyprian Ekwensi (1921– )
Buchi Emecheta (1944– )
E. Nolue Emenanjo
Perpetual Emenekwum-Eziefule
Olaudah Equiano (c. 1745–97)
Rosemary Esehagu (1981– )
Femi Euba
Chielozona Eze
Vera Ezimora
Abitogun Oladipo Ojo
Itunu-Abitogun Oyinlade Oladipo
Akinbami Oluseyi Macaulay
Aderinola Richardson (nee Aderemi)

[edit] F-K
Daniel Olorunfemi Fagunwa
Adebayo Faleti
Dan Fulani
Harry Oludare Garuba (1958– )
Jumoke Giwa
Healson Adedayo Farore, Sr.
Helon Habila
Ogaga Ifowodo
Anita Omoiataman Ihaza
Rita Ihekwaba[4]
Senator Ihenyen
Ikhide R. Ikheloa (Nnamdi)
Esiaba Irobi
Akinwunmi Isola
Uzodinma Iweala
Obi “Obiwu” Iwuayanwu
Festus Iyayi
Abubakar Imam
Femi Jeboda
Prince Joshua Olawuyi
Biodun Jeyifo (1946– )
Mike Jimoh
Samuel Johnson
Kokalu O. Kalu
Uduma Kalu
Hamzat Kassim
Sulaiman Ibrahim Katsina
Olubukola Kwegan

[edit] L-N
Abimbola Lagunju
Obakanse S. Lakanse
Akeem Lasisi
Amina Mama
Oliver Mbamara
Ayodele Morocco-Clarke (1973–)
John Munonye
Uche Nduka
Austyn Njoku
Obi Nwakanma
Martina Awele Nwakoby (1937– )
Nkem Nwankwo (1936–2001)
Flora Nwapa (1931–1993)
Njideka Nwapa-Ibuaka
Chuma Nwokolo
Angela Nwosu
Maik Nwosu
Nkechi Nwosu-Igbo
Azuka Nzegwu
Onuora Nzekwu

[edit] O
Olu Obafemi
Iheoma Obibi
Obinna Charles Okwelume
Hyacinth Obunseh
Sunny E. Ododo
Pastor Taiwo Odubiyi
Odia Ofeimun
Chike Ofili
Sarah O’Gorman
Olu Oguibe
Ike Oguine
Molara Ogundipe
Samuel Olagunju Ogundipe
Tolulope Ogunlesi
Denrele Ogunwa
Omolola Ijeoma Ogunyemi
Yemi D. Ogunyemi
Ijeoma Ogwuegbu
Francis Ohanyido (1970– )
Tanure Ojaide
Bamiji Ojo
Akinloye Ojo
Olatubosun Oladapo
Gabriel Okara (1921– )
Oladejo Okedeji
Wale Okediran
Chika Okeke
Remi Okere
Niran Okewole
Christopher Okigbo (1932–1967)
Onookome Okome
Ike Okonta
Nnedi Okorafor-Mbachu
Dike Okoro
Rudolf Ogoo Okonkwo
Wole Oguntokun
Osita Okoroafor
Ben Okri (1959– )
Afolabi Olabimtan
Simbo Olorunfemi
Esho Oluborode
Alade E. Oluwadamilola
Kole Omotosho (1943– )
Nduka Onwuegbute (1969– )
Osonye Tess Onwueme (1955– )
Dillibe Onyeama
Frank Onyebu
Nwando Onyeabo
Alexander Orok
Nnaemeka Oruh
Dennis Osadebay
Femi Osofisan
Chinye Phiona Osai
Sanya Osha
Sola Osofisan
E.C. Osondu
Niyi Osundare (1947– )
Tony Nduka Otiono
Helen Ovbiagele (1944– )
Jamin Owhovoriole
Bunmi Oyinsan
Dupe Olorunjo
Naan Pocen
Seni Ogunkola

[edit] R-T
Remi Raji
Aderemi Raji-Oyelade
Ken Saro-Wiwa (1941–95)
Lola Shoneyin
Mudi Sipikin
Ladipo Soetan
Zulu Sofola (1935–95)
Bode Sowande (1948–)
J. Sobowole Sowande
Ugochukwu Ejinkeonye
Wole Soyinka (1934– ), awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature
Loud Speaker
Emmanuel Sule
Mohammed Sule
Muritala Sule
Kola Tubosun
Adebisi Thompson
Amos Tutuola (1920-97)
Morenike Taire

[edit] U-Z
Uche Nworah
Ebele Uche-Nwakile
Françoise Ugochukwu, born in France
Clarius Ugwuoha
Gracy Ukala (formerly Osifo)
Adaora Lily Ulasi (1932– )
Sumaila Isah Umaisha
Karo Umukoro
Chika Unigwe
Emman Usman Shehu
Ronnie Uzoigwe
Jumoke Verissimo
Ugonna Wachuku (1971– ), lives in Geneva, Switzerland
Segun Williams
Ken Wiwa (1968– ), now resides in Canada
Kenneth Nwobosi(www.kenobosi.tk)
Molara Wood
Oladipo Yemitan
Sa’adu Zungur

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AFRICAN LITERATURE FROM WIKIPEIDA.ORG

May 5, 2008

from en.wikipedia.org

African literature
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
African literature refers to the literature of and for the African peoples. As George Joseph notes on the first page of his chapter on African literature in Understanding Contemporary Africa, while the European perception of literature generally refers to written letters, the African concept includes oral literature. [1]

As George Joseph continues, while European views of literature often stressed a separation of art and content, African awareness is inclusive:

“Literature” can also imply an artistic use of words for the sake of art alone. Without denying the important role of aesthetics in Africa, we should keep in mind that, traditionally, Africans do not radically separate art from teaching. Rather than write or sing for beauty in itself, African writers, taking their cue from oral literature, use beauty to help communicate important truths and information to society. Indeed, an object is considered beautiful because of the truths it reveals and the communities it helps to build. [2]
Contents [hide]
1 Early written literatures
2 Oral literature
3 Precolonial literature
4 Colonial African literature
5 Postcolonial African literature
6 Noma Award
7 Major African novels
8 Major African poets
9 Secondary literature
10 See also
11 References
12 External links

[edit] Early written literatures
North Africa had an early literate indigenous civilization (Ancient Egypt) some of whose hieroglyphic writings survive. North Africans also contributed to writing in Phoenician, Greek and Latin. Phoenician material, from Carthage and other colonies on the continent, has been very largely lost. Encouraged by the royal patronage of the Ptolemaic rulers, scholars in Alexandria assembled the famous Library of Alexandria and Alexandrian writers contributed not insignificantly to the material housed in this institution. North Africans writing in Latin include Apuleius and Saint Augustine.

In Islamic times, North Africans, such as ibn Khaldun attained great distinction within Arabic literature.

[edit] Oral literature
Oral literature (or orature) may be in prose or verse. The prose is often mythological or historical and can include tales of the trickster character. Storytellers in Africa sometimes use call-and-response techniques to tell their stories. Poetry, often sung, includes: narrative epic, occupational verse, ritual verse, praise poems to rulers and other prominent people. Praise singers, bards sometimes known as “griots”, tell their stories with music. [3] Also recited, often sung, are: love songs, work songs, children’s songs, along with epigrams, proverbs and riddles.[4]

[edit] Precolonial literature
Examples of pre-colonial African literature include the Epic of Sundiata composed in medieval Mali, The older Epic of Dinga from the old Ghana Empire, and the Kebra Negast or book of kings from Ethiopia. One popular form of traditional African folktale is the “trickster” story, where a small animal uses its wits to survive encounters with larger creatures. Examples of animal tricksters include Anansi, a spider in the folklore of the Ashanti people of Ghana; Ijàpá, a tortoise in Yoruba folklore of Nigeria; and Sungura, a hare found in central and East African folklore. [5]

[edit] Colonial African literature
The African works best known in the West from the period of colonization and the slave trade are primarily slave narratives, such as Olaudah Equiano’s The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789).

In the colonial period, Africans exposed to Western languages began to write in those tongues. In 1911, Joseph Ephraim Casely-Hayford (also known as Ekra-Agiman) of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) published what is probably the first African novel written in English, Ethiopia Unbound: Studies in Race Emancipation [6] Although the work moves between fiction and political advocacy, its publication and positive reviews in the Western press mark a watershed moment in African literature.

During this period, African plays began to emerge. Herbert Isaac Ernest Dhlomo of South Africa published the first English-language African play , The Girl Who Killed to Save: Nongqawuse the Liberator in 1935. In 1962, Ngugi wa Thiong’o of Kenya wrote the first East African drama, The Black Hermit, a cautionary tale about “tribalism” (racism between African tribes).

African literature in the late colonial period (between the end of World War I and independence) increasingly showed themes of liberation, independence, and (among Africans in French-controlled territories) négritude. One of the leaders of the négritude movement, the poet and eventual President of Senegal, Léopold Sédar Senghor, published the first anthology of French-language poetry written by Africans in 1948, Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache de langue française (Anthology of the New Black and Malagasy Poetry in the French Language), featuring a preface by the French existentialist writer Jean-Paul Sartre. [7]

[edit] Postcolonial African literature
With liberation and increased literacy since most African nations gained their independence in the 1950s and 1960s, African literature has grown dramatically in quantity and in recognition, with numerous African works appearing in Western academic curricula and on “best of” lists compiled at the end of the 20th century. African writers in this period wrote both in Western languages (notably English, French, and Portuguese) and in traditional African languages.

Ali A. Mazrui and others mention seven conflicts as themes: the clash between Africa’s past and present, between tradition and modernity, between indigenous and foreign, between individualism and community, between socialism and capitalism, between development and self-reliance and between Africanity and humanity. [8] Other themes in this period include social problems such as corruption, the economic disparities in newly independent countries, and the rights and roles of women. Female writers are today far better represented in published African literature than they were prior to independence.

In 1986, Wole Soyinka became the first post-independence African writer to win the Nobel Prize in literature. Algerian-born Albert Camus had been awarded the 1957 prize.

[edit] Noma Award
The Noma Award, begun in 1980, is presented for the outstanding work of the year in African literature.

[edit] Major African novels
Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart (Nigeria)
Alan Paton, Cry, The Beloved Country (South Africa)
Gracy Ukala, Dizzy Angel (Nigeria)
Daniel Olorunfemi Fagunwa, Ogboju odẹ ninu igbo irunmalẹ (The Forest of a Thousand Demons) (Nigeria)
Mariama Bâ, Une si longue lettre (So Long a Letter) (Senegal)
Ousmane Sembène, Xala (Senegal)
Ngugi wa Thiong’o, A Grain of Wheat (Kenya)
Benjamin Sehene, Le Feu sous la Soutane (Fire under the Cassock) (Rwanda)
Thomas Mofolo, Chaka (South Africa/Lesotho)
Tsitsi Dangarembga, Nervous Conditions (Zimbabwe)
Dambudzo Marechera, The House of Hunger (Zimbabwe/Rhodesia)
Yvonne Vera, Butterfly Burning (Zimbabwe)
Mia Couto, Terra Sonâmbula (A Sleepwalking Land) (Mozambique)
Ayi Kwei Armah, The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (Ghana)
Ben Okri, The Famished Road (Nigeria)
J.M. Coetzee, Disgrace (South Africa)
BAYO ADEBOWALE’S NOVELS:”THE VIRGIN”,”OUT OF HIS MIND” AND “LONELY DAYS”(NIGERIA)
[edit] Major African poets
Chinua Achebe (Nigeria)
Gracy Ukala (Nigeria)
Wole Soyinka (Nigeria)
Christopher Okigbo (Nigeria)
Lenrie Peters (Gambia)
Kofi Anyidoho (Ghana)
Dennis Brutus (South Africa)
Kofi Awoonor (Ghana)
Chidi Anthony Opara(Nigeria)
BAYO ADEBOWALE(NIGERIA)
[edit] Secondary literature
Encyclopedia of African Literature, ed Simon Gikandi, London: Routledge, 2003.
The Cambridge History of African and Caribbean Literature, ed Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi, 2 vls, Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Table of contents
Daughters of Africa: An International Anthology of Words and Writing by Women of African Descent”, ed Margaret Busby (Random House, 1992).
General History of Africa vol. VIII, ed. Ali A. Mazrui, UNESCO, 1993, ch. 19 “The development of modern literature since 1935,” Ali A. Mazrui et al.
Understanding Contemporary Africa, ed. April A. Gordon and Donald L. Gordon, Lynne Rienner, London, 1996, ch. 12 “African Literature”, George Joseph
“Great Poets From Around The World (Nigeria)”,World Poets Society Official Website,www.world-poets.blogspot.com

[edit] See also
List of African writers
African cinema
Nigerian literature

[edit] References
^ George, Joseph, “African Literature” ch. 12 of Understanding Contemporary Africa p. 303
^ ibid p. 304
^ http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0802673.html
^ George Joseph, op. cit. pp. 306-310
^ African Literature – MSN Encarta
^ [1].
^ Leopold Senghor – MSN Encarta
^ Ali A. Mazrui et al. “The development of modern literature since 1935” as ch. 19 of UNESCO’s General History of Africa vol. VIII p. 564f Collaborating with Ali A. Mazrui on this chapter were Mario Pinto de Andrade, M’hamed Alaoui Abdalaoui, Daniel P. Kunene and Jan Vansina.

[edit] External links
African Languages and Literature at the University of Wisconsin-Madison
African Literature Association
The 100 best African books of the 20th century
Research in African literature and Culture
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